Translation quality assurance: sophisticated term or a vital part of a translation project?


2019-11-19 16:34 aceproof


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Translation quality assurance is essential in any sphere of translation business but can be critical in medical, legal, accounting, and technical documentation. Lousy translation can influence business and in certain cases could even cause a loss of life. Given the pressures that can be on a translator, I feel that translators need some kind of support. After all, what is the general first thought when someone sees a bad translation? It’s likely that 95% of ordinary people would answer “the translator is guilty.” But is it really so easy? Sometimes translation companies do not go beyond translation quality control, usually made AFTER the translation is already done. But real translation quality assurance should start BEFORE the text comes to the translator. Producing high-quality translations is the outcome of efforts made by all the team members. A translation could fail not only because of a low translator’s qualification but also because of an inferior quality management system. 1 A new potential project? Great… But calm down and carefully study what exactly the client wants. This is a key component of success. What should be translated and what should be left as it is? What are the file formats and the final design? Translation quality is not only about how accurate the translator conveys ideas, but also about how the client perceives quality. Consider, what is the purpose of the text? Is it a text for a corporate website or for a promo brochure? Who are our readers? What are their ages, gender, education, occupation, and cultural background? Are we preparing information for investors or for clients, doctors or their patients, moms or teenagers? All this information will help translators write for maximum impact and comprehension. For example, a close translation of marketing messages can be a fail if not tested with the target market. Clairol’s curling iron “Mist Stick” failed in Germany, because Mist is German slang for manure. Likewise, the intention behind jokes can be lost in translation if not adopted appropriately. 2 It is the team that makes a project successful. Translators, editors, and proofreaders are the key people that craft good translations. It is usually the project manager’s job to choose suitable people for the team, depending on their background and qualification. Translators often should be native in the target language, have a background in translation studies, and certificates from professional associations or a government. Most experienced professionals tend to have a specialization and prefer to stick with that subject. For instance, good technical translators may have difficulties with literary texts, while excellent medical translators will usually never take on legal documents. People who just can chat with coworkers or deliver a great speech in a target language may not be good translators. Translators spend long years studying grammar and punctuation, language structure, syntax, style, terminology, etc. Companies that fall into the trap of “why pay more” reasoning and chose not to hire professionals in favor of just asking their bilingual employees to translate texts can end up with poor results and actually end up “paying more.” 3 Information technologies are everywhere nowadays and have even infiltrated translation services. Engineers convert files from clients to a format that translators can easily work with, ensure the correct importing of all content, the right segmentation, and can lock segments not to be touched. For example, emails, tags, or codes on a typical website often do not need to be translated. Translation accuracy heavily depends on this part of the process. Consequently, engineers may make them read-only, ensuring that translators will not accidentally change these words or phrases. 4 Instructions, terminology glossaries, and style guides are not red tape hinders, but rather are helpers in the translation process and for ensuring its quality assurance. A glossary defines WHAT language should be used. It usually contains a list of terms and phrases a company or a brand prefers to use, as well as brand names, service features, acronyms, etc. Style guides control HOW language is used. These guides usually specify the desired tone, use of symbols (™, ®), the format of numbers and dates, the style of headings and titles, and line breaks in titles and subheads, etc. The English Style Guide of the European Commission, for instance, clearly states that all the documents should be written in British, not American English. The World Bank Editorial Style Guide includes even specific nuances, such as the instruction that references to Taiwan must conform to the following style: Taiwan, China. These guides form a specific tone of voice for a brand or company and ensure that it remains consistent throughout all the texts prepared by different people on behalf of the company. 5 Nowadays, most translators cannot imagine their work without translation tools. The most widely used are CAT tools. These programs are powerful tools that help to make the translation more consistent and the workflow – in terms of efficiency and cost of jobs – lower. These programs provide a database of terms and previously approved translations. Whenever CAT tools detect an exact or partial match between an old translation and a new one, the translator gets a recommendation. If, for example, the phrase “50% Off Men’s Hats” has already been translated, translation memory would detect a partial (or “fuzzy”) match with, e.g., “50% Off Women’s Hats.” Termbases in CAT tools store terminology that needs to be translated in a specific way. A word can have several translations, but one may suit one brand better than another. A company makes the choice once and then gets consistent translation throughout all its projects and documents. Some CAT tools let translators see how the target text will appear as a final product. They will let translators know, for instance, is this text for a website or mobile app? Will the word “run” appear on a website button or sit in the navigation menu of a fitness app? Thus, translators can easily avoid contextual confusions and are better able to understand the phrasing or formatting restrictions. 6 Does the translation deliver the same meaning as the original? Is it a correct word choice? Are there any contextual mistakes and inconsistencies? Is the accurate terminology used? Is the text in line with the style guide requirements? Is it appropriate for the target audience? These are the questions an editor has to answer to improve translated documents. Professional editors polish texts as if written in the target language from the very beginning. After editing, the text needs to be proofread. A proofreader makes spelling, grammar, and punctuation checks. This specialist also ensures correct formatting of a document: removing unnecessary or missing spaces, double punctuation marks, tags and numeric mismatches, fluffing untranslated segments, etc. The translation has to fit the local standards of the target language. What typographic quotes are correct to use? Is it “ ” like in English or „ “ like in Czech, or maybe « » for French or » « for Danish? Are thousands grouped in numbers with commas, points, or hard spaces? Are integral and decimal parts separated with a comma or point? While the linguistic part can be performed only by a human, the monotonous formatting part can be easily automated and passed to stand-alone translation quality assurance tools or built-in QA checkers within all CAT tools (e.g., SDL Trados Studio or MemoQ). 7 In the final stage, engineers or designers have to convert working files back to the original format. These specialists usually use Adobe products such as InDesign, Illustrator, or Photoshop, to prepare final documents or DTP. Often, this is not an easy process. Often the translated text can have longer paragraphs, different special characters, or even a left/right directional swap. After these mandatory steps, a client may check and comment on the terminology and style used in the final version of the text. It is good practice to get feedback from the client and to evaluate the work of the team. This step is vital to understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the translation quality assurance process in the company. Do you have an established translation quality assurance process in your company? What useful tips do you have? What software do you use? Share your experience in the comments below.
很多人读到质量差的译文时,最先想到的是“译者真差劲”。但是,事情真的这么简单吗? 一些翻译公司只在译者翻译完之后进行翻译质量控制 (translation quality control), 但是真正的翻译质量保障工作 (translation quality assurance) 在将文本交给译者之前就应该开始。高质量的译文是整个翻译团队共同努力的结果。译文质量差,可能是因为译者水平差,但也可能是因为团队内部的质量管理体系不完善。 那么,怎样做好 quality assurance (QA) 呢?下面是翻译项目管理专家 Tetianna Vasylenko 的几点经验: 1 拿到新的翻译项目之后,先冷静下来,仔细研究客户想要的是什么。哪些内容要翻译,哪些要保留原文?文件格式和排版格式应该是怎样的?翻译质量不仅与译者传达信息的准确性有关,还与客户对质量的判断标准有关。 考虑一下,文本的用途是什么? 文本是出现在公司网站上还是促销手册上?目标受众是谁?受众的年龄、性别、受教育程度、职业和文化背景是什么?受众是投资者还是客户,是医生还是患者,是家长还是青少年?所有这些信息将帮助翻译人员最大程度地发挥影响力,使译文更方便读者理解。 2 团队是项目成功的关键。译者、编辑和校对人员是产出优秀译文的关键角色。项目经理的工作在于,根据团队的背景和资历选择合适的人员来担任这些职位。 译者通常应以目标语言为母语,具有翻译研究背景,并需要获得专业协会或政府的证书。大多数经验丰富的专业人员倾向于某一专业领域的翻译,并且一直翻译该领域的内容。例如,优秀的技术翻译可能很难做好文学翻译,而优秀的医学翻译通常不接受法律文件的翻译任务。 “好翻译”并不是会讲目标语言,能以目标语言发表精彩演讲就足够的。译员要花很长时间学习语法和标点符号、语言结构、写作风格、术语等。如果一个公司为了节约成本,不聘用专业译员,而是要求会双语的其他岗位员工翻译文件,可能导致译文质量低,最后得不偿失。 3 信息技术如今无处不在,甚至也渗透到了翻译服务中。工程师将来自客户的文件转换为译者可以轻松使用的格式,确保所有内容的正确导入,进行语句切分,还可以锁定不允许译者更改的语句。比如,电子邮件地址、标签或一些网站的代码通常不需要翻译。翻译的准确性在很大程度上取决于这一步。因此,工程师可以将它们设置为只读,以确保翻译人员不会更改这些语句。 4 说明、术语词汇表和样式指南并非繁文缛节,它们能帮助确保翻译的质量。 词汇表定义了翻译中应该使用怎样的语言。词汇表通常会列出公司或品牌更喜欢使用的术语和短语,还会列出品牌名称、服务功能、首字母缩写词等等。 样式指南控制如何使用语言。这些指南通常会指定所需的语言风格、符号的用法(™,®)、数字和日期的格式、标题和标题的样式以及标题和副标题的换行方式等。例如,欧洲委员会 (the European Commission) 的英语样式指南,明确指出所有文件都应使用英式英语而非美式英语。 这些指南形成了品牌或公司特定的语言风格,并在由不同人员代表公司编写的所有文本中保持一致。 5 如今,翻译工具对大多数译员来说非常重要,其中使用最广泛的是CAT工具。这些程序功能强大,有助于使翻译更加一致,并降低翻译成本、提升翻译效率。 这些程序提供术语数据库和先前批准的译文数据库。每当CAT工具检测到旧翻译与新翻译之间的完全匹配或部分匹配时,就会推荐给翻译人员。例如,如果短语“50% Off Men’s Hats”已被翻译,则翻译记忆库将检测到部分匹配(或“模糊”),例如“50% Off Women’s Hats”。CAT工具中的术语库存储需要以特定的方式进行翻译的术语。一个词可以有几种翻译,但是一个词可能比另一个词更适合一个品牌。公司只需选择一种翻译,然后在其所有项目和文档中获得一致的翻译。 一些CAT工具使翻译人员可以看到目标文本的最终译文会出现在哪种情况下。例如,会让翻译人员知道,此段文字是用于网站还是移动应用程序中,“run”一词会出现在网站按钮上还是健身应用程序的导航菜单中。这样,翻译人员可以轻松避免上下文混乱,并且能够更好地理解措辞上或格式上的限制。 6 这些是编辑人员要改善翻译文档所必须回答一系列问题:翻译的含义和原文一样吗?单词选择合适吗?是否存在上下文错误和前后矛盾?是否使用了准确的术语?文字是否符合样式指南要求?是否适合目标受众? 编辑后,需要对文本进行校对。校对人员进行拼写、语法和标点检查。还确保文档格式正确:删除或添加空格、双标点符号、标签和数字等等。翻译必须符合目标语言的本地标准。例如,引号的使用在英语、捷克语、法语、丹麦语中可能各不相同(在中文中也是);在各语言中,千以上的数字是否需要以逗号、点或空格分隔,也有不同的标准;整数和小数部分在有些语言中要用逗号或点分隔。 虽然语言部分只能由人执行,但单调的格式部分可以轻松实现自动化,并传递给独立的翻译质量保证工具或所有CAT工具(例如SDL Trados Studio或MemoQ)中的内置质量检查工具。 7 在最后阶段,需要将工作文件转换回原始文件格式,通常使用Adobe产品(例如InDesign,Illustrator或Photoshop)来准备最终文档或进行桌面出版(Desktop Publishing)工作。通常,这不是一个容易的过程。通常,翻译后的文本段落可能较长,特殊字符可能有变换,甚至可以要进行书写方向的转换。(已人工编译,有删改)