What Is a Stakeholder? Definitions, Types & Examples


2022-03-10 01:50 project manager


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Stakeholders are important to every project. They are impacted by the project, be they investor or customer. But what is a stakeholder? There’s more than one answer to that question. Let’s take some time to define what a stakeholder is, examples of stakeholders and free stakeholder templates that can help with stakeholder management. What Is a Stakeholder? A stakeholder is either an individual, group or organization who is impacted by the outcome of a project or a business venture. They have an interest in the success of the project, and can be within or outside the organization that is sponsoring the project. Stakeholders are very important because they can have a positive or negative influence on the project with their decisions. There are also critical or key stakeholders, whose support is needed for the project to exist. A stakeholder is a person, like any other member of the project, and some will be easier to manage than others. You’re going to have to learn to use stakeholder maps to identify who your key stakeholders are and make sure you meet their requirements. The stakeholder has a vest interest in the project. That means you’ll want to keep them updated regularly. ProjectManager is a cloud-based work and project management software that has real-time dashboards that monitor six project metrics. Dashboards require no setup, automatically show progress and performance in colorful graphs and charts. They can easily be shared to manage your stakeholders expectations. Get started with ProjectManager today for free. Stakeholder vs Shareholder Stakeholders are not the same thing as shareholders. A stakeholder can be a wide variety of people impacted or invested in the project. For example, a stakeholder can be the owner or even the shareholder. But stakeholders can also be the employees, bondholders, customers, suppliers and vendors, too. A shareholder can be a stakeholder. A shareholder, though, is someone who has invested in a corporation. That corporation might initiate projects that the shareholder is a stakeholder in too, as shareholders are also stakeholders, but stakeholders are not always shareholders. That’s because a shareholder owns a part of a public company through the purchase of stocks. A stakeholder has an interest in the corporation’s performance, not stock performance. A shareholder can be a person, but they can also be a company or an institution. They have a financial interest in the corporation’s profitability. Shareholders, as owners of the corporation’s stock, are able to vote and impact the management of a company. While they are part-owners of the company, they are not liable for the company’s debt. In fact, stakeholders and shareholders can have competing interests. Pro tip: The terms stakeholder and shareholder are commonly confused. If you want more information on this, you can dive into stakeholder theory and shareholder theory, two similar yet different approaches. Types of Stakeholders While every project has stakeholders and those stakeholders can be anyone with influence or that can be influenced by the project. We have already seen that there can be many stakeholders and that will be further discussed soon. But all stakeholders can be broken into two groups: internal stakeholders and external stakeholders. Let’s take a look at both. Internal Stakeholders Internal stakeholders are those who are within the organization. The project directly impacts them as they serve and are employed by the organization managing it. These can include employees, owners, the board of directors, project managers, investors and more. External Stakeholders External stakeholders are those people who are outside of the organzation and are indirectly impacted by the project. They are, however, influenced by the organization’s work but are not employees of the organization. These people can be suppliers, customers, creditors, clients, intermediaries, competitors, society, government and more. Stakeholder Examples As we mentioned, there are many different types of stakeholders. There are internal stakeholders and external stakeholders, and there are many stakeholder examples that fall under one or the other category. Let’s take a look at some of the more common stakeholder examples. Investors: These are stakeholders looking for a financial return. They can be shareholders and debtholders. They have invested capital in the business and want a return on that investment. Employees: These stakeholders rely on their employment and job security. They have a direct stake in the organization as it supports them and provides them with benefits Customers: These stakeholders want the product or service that the project delivers and they expect it to be of quality and contain value for themselves. Suppliers and Vendors: These stakeholders have their revenue tied up with the project as they sell goods and services to the business managing the project. Project success means more business for them. Communities: These stakeholders want the project not to negatively impact their health, safety or economic development. The organizations that are housed in their communities or working on projects in their communities can impact job creation, spending and much more. Government: These stakeholders get taxes and gross domestic product from a project. They are major stakeholders as they collect taxes from both the company on a corporate level and individually from those it employs. A stakeholder is a person, like any other member of the project, and some will be easier to manage than others. You’re going to have to learn to deal with a variety of personalities and make sure you’re having a productive dialogue with them to know the project goals you’ve been hired to meet. But first, who is the stakeholder? How to Manage Project Stakeholders Managing stakeholders can be easy if you follow the right stakeholder management steps. Here are the steps that any project manager should follow when managing stakeholder relations. 1. Stakeholder Identification Identifying who the stakeholders are in your project is key. The project’s success depends on it. If your stakeholder isn’t happy, then the project is not a complete success. So, you want to start this process as soon as the project charter has been created. Related: Free Project Charter Template A good place to start figuring out who your stakeholders are is by reviewing the project charter, which documents the reason for the project and appoints the project manager. Among the information about objects, budget, schedule, assumptions and constraints, project sponsor and top management, you can discern the stakeholders. Also, review the contracts, as stakeholders might be mentioned in these documents. Are there environmental factors or other organizations with key ties to the project? Look those over too, as they might supply you with the names of stakeholders. For example, if there are environmental factors dictated by the government, then the government is a stakeholder. Review their regulations and standards to stay in good terms with them. 2. Stakeholder Analysis Once you identify your project stakeholders, it’s time for the stakeholder analysis phase, where you’ll need to gather information and requirements from them. You’ll also need to begin estimating their level of involvement and influence in your project to get ready to create stakeholder communication strategies and prioritize them. 3. Stakeholder Prioritization A key question for anyone managing a project is how should you manage a stakeholder on the project? To complicate matters, there might be many stakeholders in your project. You should treat them like you would any other task on your to-do list: by prioritizing them. Over the course of a project, one stakeholder might be more valuable in terms of the project objections than another, whereas some stakeholders might demand more attention than others. So, you want to define who those people are and at what point in the project phase you might need to attend to them more, and build that into your schedule. 4. Stakeholder Engagement Now we’ve come to the second part of our question, which we’ve already started answering in the above paragraph. When we talk of stakeholder management what we mean is creating a positive relationship with your stakeholders by meeting their expectations and whatever objectives they agreed to in the project. This relationship isn’t just granted, however. It must be earned. You can earn the trust and build a positive relationship with stakeholders through proactive communication and by listening to their needs. One way to do this is by interviewing the project stakeholders—not all of them, but certainly the most important ones. You might need to speak to experts to get the background you need for particular fields or groups, so when you do have one-on-one conversations with the stakeholders, you’re well-informed and ready to get the most out of that time together. There is a process for this like there is a process for everything in project management: Document Stakeholder Communications. Do this formally by creating a stakeholder communication plan. Note their names and their roles in the organization they represent. Document every conversation you have with these key project partners, both to record their interests and requests, but also to be able to review their information later for accuracy. If you’re conducting interviews, ask the stakeholders if you can record those conversations, as any record of interaction is important to document. Enforce Process. Next, you want to keep to a process of communications with stakeholders and make sure that process is transparent, so everyone knows what to expect. This includes project requests or feedback, and how you will document and respond to those requests needs to be subject to a formal process of review and approval. This lets the stakeholders know that requests are subject to review and that you have a process that you adhere to for those formal requests. This protects both parties from scope changes and miscommunications that can impact the project. Provide Frequent Status Reports. Providing regular and timely status reports that are appropriate for the stakeholders is crucial. You can go into details with team members, while executives are going to want more of an overview. So, tailor the reports to the audience. Don’t forget to follow up with stakeholders as well, asking questions to see if they have any feedback. That way you’re managing them, and you’re communicating with them proactively, to know if there’s discontent or some decision has been made that will impact the project. Dashboards in ProjectManager, provide real-time data so you’re stakeholders are always aware of the latest action. Dispel Myths. Your stakeholder might be working on multiple projects, which means they’re not going to have the same closeness to the project as you. But that doesn’t mean they’re not getting other information about your project from other sources. You don’t want them to be subject to gossip or get incorrect information that might sway their opinions in the project. If they do make an assumption or get misinformation, you have to nip that poison in the bud and provide them with the truth. Sometimes they might not want to hear that truth, but better it comes from you, so you can control and manage it. Stakeholder Management Templates Managing stakeholders and their expectations is an important part of project management. You need to keep stakeholders updated but you don’t want them interrupting the important work of managing the project or risk disaster. ProjectManager can help with software or, if you’re not ready to upgrade, with free templates. We have free templates for every stage of your project. Here are a few that deal with stakeholder management. Stakeholder Analysis Template Before you can manage your stakeholders you have to understand them in the context of your project. Our free stakeholder analysis template for Excel helps you to identify the stakeholders in your project with a stakeholder analysis matrix. You can collect the key stakeholders by group and determine their level of participation, interest and power. Stakeholder Map Template Our free stakeholder map template for Excel helps you see each stakeholders’ level of interest and level of influence. By where they land you can know if they must be managed closely, kept satisfied, kept informed or monitored. There is also a color key to make it easy to read, such as green if they’re supportive, yellow if they’re neutral and red if they’re a blocker. Communication Plan Template Finally, once you understand your stakeholders it’s time to set up a way to keep them informed. Our free communication plan template for Word is the ideal tool to define your objectives and define the channels and regularity by which your stakeholders expect to be kept up-to-date. The free communication plan template works for all your communication needs in a project, not only for communicating with stakeholders. Use ProjectManager for Stakeholder Management You know what a stakeholder is and why it’s important to keep them in the loop during the life cycle of your project. ProjectManager is cloud-based work and project management software that can help you manage their expectations and keep them updated with real-time data. Real-Time Dashboard for High-Level View Stakeholders want data, but they don’t want to get lost in the weeds of a project. Those deep dives are crucial for project managers and their teams, but stakeholders only want the broad strokes. Our real-time dashboard collects information as it’s reported. Those numbers are automatically crunched and displayed in easy-to-read charts and graphs that track six project metrics to keep stakeholders informed on progress. Detailed Reports for Stakeholder Presentations While the dashboard gives the big picture, stakeholders often want to get further details. With one click you can generate the reports stakeholders want to see, whether that’s project status, time or cost. If they have questions, no problem. Every report can be filtered to show cost management or just the data they want. They can be easily shared, too, so stakeholders can get the reports how they want them. Create Transparency With Shared Plans The project plan is the roadmap that charts the direction of the project. It’s a critical document and one that is changing throughout the project. Stakeholders will need the project plan to keep the project’s progress in context. Therefore, project managers want an easy-to-share project plan. You can import and export project plans and share them with anyone. As the project plan changes, just send an updated one to your stakeholders and keep them in the loop. Our tool can automate a lot of your busywork. For example, you can automate email notifications, so stakeholders are kept updated on status reports. We give stakeholders the transparency they want to feel informed, which gives the project manager and project team the room they need to complete the project on time, within budget and to stakeholder’s quality expectations. When you’re reporting to stakeholders you want to make sure the process is both streamlined and accurate. ProjectManager makes sharing reports easy as a click of a button. Our cloud-based project management software updates in real time, so you always have the most accurate, up-to-date project data for yourself and your stakeholders. Try our award-winning software today with this 30-day free trial. Sample Project Plan For Your Next Project 4 Must-Have Project Dashboard Tools Project Management for Startups & Entrepreneurs: A Quick Start Guide
利益相关者对每个项目都很重要。无论是投资者还是客户,他们都会受到项目的影响。但什么是利益相关者?这个问题有不止一个答案。让我们花一些时间来定义什么是利益相关者,利益相关者的例子和可以帮助利益相关者管理的免费利益相关者模板。 什么是利益相关者? 利益相关者是受项目或企业结果影响的个人、团体或组织。他们对项目的成功感兴趣,可以在赞助项目的组织内部或外部。 利益相关者非常重要,因为他们的决策可能会对项目产生积极或消极的影响。还有一些关键的或关键的利益相关者,项目的存在需要他们的支持。 利益相关者是一个人,就像项目的任何其他成员一样,有些人比其他人更容易管理。你必须学会使用利益相关者地图来确定你的关键利益相关者是谁,并确保你满足他们的要求。 利益相关者在该项目中拥有权益。这意味着你需要定期更新它们。ProjectManager是一款基于云的工作和项目管理软件,具有实时仪表盘,可监控六个项目指标。仪表盘无需设置,可在彩色图表中自动显示进度和性能。它们可以很容易地共享,以管理利益相关者的期望。立即免费使用ProjectManager。 利益相关者与股东 利益相关者与股东不是一回事。利益相关者可以是受项目影响或投资的各种各样的人。例如,利益相关者可以是所有者,甚至是股东。但利益相关者也可以是员工、债券持有人、客户、供应商和供应商。 股东可以是利益相关者。不过,股东是指对公司进行投资的人。该公司可能会发起股东也是利益相关者的项目,因为股东也是利益相关者,但利益相关者并不总是股东。这是因为股东通过购买股票拥有上市公司的一部分。利益相关者关心的是公司的业绩,而不是股票业绩。 股东可以是个人,也可以是公司或机构。他们对公司的盈利能力有经济利益。股东作为公司股票的所有者,有权投票并影响公司的管理层。虽然他们是公司的部分所有者,但他们不承担公司债务的责任。事实上,利益相关者和股东之间可能存在利益冲突。 专业提示:利益相关者和股东这两个词通常会混淆。如果你想了解更多这方面的信息,你可以深入研究利益相关者理论和股东理论,这两种相似但不同的方法。 利益相关者的类型 每个项目都有利益相关者,这些利益相关者可以是任何有影响力的人,也可以是任何受项目影响的人。我们已经看到,可能会有许多利益相关者,这将很快得到进一步讨论。但所有利益相关者都可以分为两类:内部利益相关者和外部利益相关者。让我们看看这两个。 内部利益相关者 内部利益相关者是指组织内部的利益相关者。该项目直接影响他们的服务,并由管理该项目的组织雇用。其中包括员工、业主、董事会、项目经理、投资者等。 外部利益相关者 外部利益相关者是指组织之外的人,他们受到项目的间接影响。然而,他们受组织工作的影响,但不是组织的员工。这些人可以是供应商、客户、债权人、客户、中介、竞争对手、社会、政府等等。 利益相关者示例 正如我们提到的,有许多不同类型的利益相关者。有内部利益相关者和外部利益相关者,也有许多利益相关者的例子属于其中一个类别。让我们来看一些更常见的涉众示例。 投资者:他们是寻求经济回报的利益相关者。他们可以是股东和债务人。他们已经在这项业务上投入了资金,并希望获得投资回报。 员工:这些利益相关者依赖于他们的就业和工作保障。他们在组织中有直接的利害关系,因为组织支持他们并为他们提供利益 客户:这些利益相关者想要项目交付的产品或服务,他们希望产品或服务具有质量,并且为自己带来价值。 供应商和供应商:这些利益相关者向管理项目的企业销售商品和服务时,其收入与项目有关。项目的成功对他们来说意味着更多的生意。 社区:这些利益相关者希望项目不会对他们的健康、安全或经济发展产生负面影响。居住在社区或从事社区项目的组织可以影响就业创造、支出等。 政府:这些利益相关者从一个项目中获得税收和国内生产总值。他们是主要的利益相关者,因为他们既从公司层面上向公司征税,也从公司雇佣的人身上单独征税。 利益相关者是一个人,就像项目的任何其他成员一样,有些人比其他人更容易管理。你必须学会与各种各样的人打交道,并确保与他们进行富有成效的对话,以了解你受雇来实现的项目目标。但首先,谁是利益相关者? 如何管理项目干系人 如果遵循正确的利益相关者管理步骤,管理利益相关者可能会很容易。以下是任何项目经理在管理利益相关者关系时应该遵循的步骤。 1.利益相关者识别 确定项目中的利益相关者是关键。这个项目的成功取决于它。如果你的利益相关者不满意,那么这个项目就不是完全成功的。因此,您希望在创建项目章程后立即开始此过程。 相关:免费项目章程模板 审查项目章程是一个很好的开始,它记录了项目的原因,并任命了项目经理。在有关目标、预算、进度、假设和约束、项目发起人和最高管理层的信息中,您可以辨别出利益相关者。 此外,审查合同,因为这些文件中可能会提到利益相关者。是否有环境因素或其他与项目有关键联系的组织?也要仔细查看这些信息,因为它们可能会为您提供利益相关者的姓名。例如,如果环境因素由政府决定,那么政府就是一个利益相关者。审查他们的法规和标准,与他们保持良好关系。 2.利益相关者分析 一旦确定了项目干系人,就到了干系人分析阶段,需要从他们那里收集信息和需求。你还需要开始评估他们在项目中的参与程度和影响力,为制定利益相关者沟通策略做好准备,并对其进行优先排序。 3.利益相关者优先顺序 对于任何管理项目的人来说,一个关键问题是,你应该如何管理项目的利益相关者?让事情复杂化的是,你的项目中可能有很多利益相关者。你应该像对待待办事项清单上的任何其他任务一样对待它们:按优先级排序。 在项目的整个过程中,一个利益相关者在项目异议方面可能比另一个利益相关者更有价值,而一些利益相关者可能需要比其他利益相关者更多的关注。所以,你要定义这些人是谁,在项目阶段的什么时候你可能需要更多地关注他们,并将其纳入你的日程。 4.利益相关者参与 现在我们进入问题的第二部分,我们已经在上面一段中开始回答。当我们谈论利益相关者管理时,我们的意思是通过满足利益相关者的期望和他们在项目中同意的任何目标,与他们建立积极的关系。然而,这种关系不仅仅是理所当然的。这是必须的。通过主动沟通和倾听利益相关者的需求,你可以赢得信任,与他们建立积极的关系。 实现这一点的一种方法是采访项目干系人——不是所有干系人,而是最重要的干系人。你可能需要与专家交谈,以获得特定领域或群体所需的背景知识,因此,当你与利益相关者进行一对一的对话时,你会获得充分的信息,并做好充分利用这段时间的准备。 这有一个过程,就像项目管理中的一切都有一个过程: 记录利益相关者的沟通。通过制定利益相关者沟通计划正式实现这一点。记下他们的名字和在他们所代表的组织中的角色。记录你与这些关键项目合作伙伴的每一次对话,既可以记录他们的兴趣和要求,也可以在以后查看他们的信息以确保准确性。如果你正在进行采访,请询问利益相关者你是否可以记录这些对话,因为任何互动记录都很重要。 执行流程。接下来,您希望保持与利益相关者的沟通过程,并确保该过程是透明的,这样每个人都知道会发生什么。这包括项目请求或反馈,以及如何记录和响应这些请求需要经过正式的审查和批准流程。这让利益相关者知道,请求需要进行审查,并且对于这些正式请求,您有一个遵循的流程。这可以保护双方不受可能影响项目的范围变更和错误沟通的影响。 经常提供状态报告。定期、及时地提供适合利益相关者的状态报告至关重要。你可以与团队成员一起深入了解细节,而高管们则希望获得更多的概述。因此,根据观众的需要定制报告。不要忘了与利益相关者保持联系,询问他们是否有任何反馈。通过这种方式,你可以管理他们,并主动与他们沟通,以了解是否有不满或做出了一些会影响项目的决定。ProjectManager中的仪表板提供实时数据,以便您的利益相关者始终了解最新的行动。 破除神话。你的利益相关者可能在多个项目上工作,这意味着他们不会像你一样接近这个项目。但这并不意味着他们没有从其他来源获得关于你的项目的其他信息。你不想让他们成为流言蜚语的对象,或者得到可能影响他们在项目中观点的错误信息。如果他们确实做出了假设或得到了错误的信息,你就必须把这种毒药扼杀在萌芽状态,并向他们提供真相。有时候,他们可能不想听到真相,但最好是你说出来的,这样你就可以控制和管理它。 利益相关者管理模板 管理利益相关者及其期望是项目管理的重要组成部分。你需要不断更新利益相关者的信息,但你不想让他们打断管理项目的重要工作,或是承担灾难风险。ProjectManager可以在软件方面提供帮助,如果您还没有准备好升级,还可以提供免费模板。我们为您的项目的每个阶段提供免费模板。下面是一些关于利益相关者管理的例子。 利益相关者分析模板 在管理利益相关者之前,你必须在项目背景下理解他们。我们的Excel免费干系人分析模板帮助您通过干系人分析矩阵确定项目中的干系人。你可以按小组收集关键利益相关者,并确定他们的参与程度、兴趣和权力。 涉众地图模板 我们的Excel免费干系人地图模板帮助您查看每个干系人的兴趣级别和影响力级别。通过他们降落的地点,你可以知道他们是否必须得到密切管理、保持满意、保持知情或监控。此外,还有一个颜色键,使其易于阅读,例如绿色(如果它们支持),黄色(如果它们是中性的),红色(如果它们是阻滞剂)。 沟通计划模板 最后,一旦你了解了你的利益相关者,是时候建立一种让他们了解情况的方法了。我们的Word免费沟通计划模板是定义您的目标、定义您的利益相关者希望保持最新状态的渠道和规律性的理想工具。免费沟通计划模板适用于项目中的所有沟通需求,而不仅仅是与利益相关者沟通。 使用ProjectManager进行干系人管理 你知道什么是利益相关者,以及为什么在项目生命周期中让他们处于循环中很重要。ProjectManager是基于云的工作和项目管理软件,可以帮助您管理他们的期望,并用实时数据更新他们的期望。 用于高级视图的实时仪表板 利益相关者需要数据,但他们不想在项目的杂草中迷失方向。对于项目经理和他们的团队来说,这些深层次的投资是至关重要的,但利益相关者只希望获得广泛的投资。我们的实时仪表板会根据报告收集信息。这些数字会自动处理,并以易于阅读的图表显示,这些图表跟踪六个项目指标,以使利益相关者了解进展情况。 利益相关者演示的详细报告 虽然仪表盘提供了大局,但利益相关者通常希望获得更多细节。只需单击一下,您就可以生成利益相关者想要查看的报告,无论是项目状态、时间还是成本。如果他们有问题,没问题。每个报告都可以被过滤,以显示成本管理或他们想要的数据。它们也可以很容易地共享,因此利益相关者可以按照自己的意愿获取报告。 通过共享计划创造透明度 项目计划是规划项目方向的路线图。这是一份至关重要的文件,在整个项目中都在不断变化。利益相关者需要项目计划来保持项目的进度。因此,项目经理想要一个易于共享的项目计划。您可以导入和导出项目计划,并与任何人共享它们。随着项目计划的变化,只需向利益相关者发送一份更新的计划,并让他们保持循环。 我们的工具可以自动化你的很多工作。例如,您可以自动发送电子邮件通知,以便利益相关者在状态报告中不断更新。我们为利益相关者提供了他们想要的信息透明度,这为项目经理和项目团队提供了他们需要的空间,以便在预算内按时完成项目,并满足利益相关者的质量期望。 当你向利益相关者报告时,你要确保流程既精简又准确。ProjectManager只需点击一个按钮,即可轻松共享报告。我们基于云的项目管理软件会实时更新,因此您始终可以为自己和您的利益相关者获得最准确、最新的项目数据。今天就试用我们的获奖软件,免费试用30天。 下一个项目的项目计划示例 4必须有项目仪表板工具 初创企业和企业家项目管理:快速入门指南