Interview with Joaquín García Palacios


2021-11-02 20:25 terminology Coordination


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Joaquín García Palacios has a PhD in Hispanic Philology, professor of Terminology (degree in Translation and Interpreting) at the University of Salamanca (Spain) and president of AETER (Spanish Association of Terminology), Joaquín García Palacios focuses his research on terminology, neology, lexicology, lexicography, Spanish language and translation. You studied Hispanic Philology… At what point in your academic and professional career were you attracted to the field of terminology? When I was writing my doctoral thesis on the lexicon of love and knowledge in the works of San Juan de la Cruz, I realized that the lexicon I was studying was different from the general lexicon I was working with while collaborating in the writing of a Spanish dictionary…. I discovered that I was doing what others called terminology, that prominent linguists were devoting special attention to the study of terminology at that time (beginning of the 1990s), that there was a whole field of study and very interesting work and that there was much to do and to learn. After obtaining my PhD, I got a position in the Department of Translation and Interpretation at the University of Salamanca, and that is when everything changed. From that moment on I kept researching and teaching Terminology, as part of Translation studies. I was especially interested in the terminology dimension within Applied Linguistics. In a world led by technology and social networks, how do terminologists address the growing number of neologisms? As usual, with patience and knowledge. There have always been times when the new has seemed a danger, there have always been people (intellectuals or not) who have thought that. But neologisms do not have to represent a danger for a language; on the contrary, they are a sign of its vitality, of its capacity to adapt to new times. If you are referring to a special type of neologisms, the loanwords from other languages, the situation is partly the same, but it has its peculiarities. As we know, it is a recurring topic throughout the history of all languages. It is a matter closely related to the attitudes of speakers towards their own language and towards the dominant languages. Extreme positions can be adopted, but the important thing is that terminologists base their assessments (which should never be passionate) on a good knowledge of the facts. The point is that languages evolve along with society and that this evolution is based on a balance between the terms generated with their own resources and the loanwords. Balance and knowledge are needed to adapt foreign terms correctly. For other co-official languages of Spain, institutions such as Termcat are working to avoid the excess of foreign words in Catalan and to achieve terminological standardisation. In the case of Spanish, do you think that enough work is being done to avoid the anglicisms used in Spanish day after day? Who should control this? It is not about avoiding nor controlling something that is neither avoidable nor controllable. As I have already said, it is a question of adapting and adapting well. Nevertheless, at the same time, it is necessary to further promote specialized communication in languages other than English. Of course, it is very important to have a language that makes international communication easier, particularly in special languages. But it is also essential to take care of other languages of culture. How can we not worry and care about an international language with so much weight in the world as Spanish? We know that demography alone is not enough. We must do something, much more than what we are doing. To take care of a language means to strengthen it, to give it much more value than it already has. And, in this sense, the work that is being done in Catalonia with the special languages seems to me very worthy of study, because we can learn a lot about how to take care of Spanish or other Romance languages. In 2005, the association you preside, AETER (Spanish Association of Terminology), launched a project to organise terminology in Spanish, based on the ideas of Mª Teresa Cabré. What is the current status of this project? The project that was originally launched by the Spanish Association of Terminology when Teresa Cabré was its president remains fully valid. It is a comprehensive project, aimed at facilitating unified access to quality terminology in Spanish. How can this be done? By building a platform to access a linguistically sanctioned terminology, validated by experts in each field of knowledge. It is an ambitious project, with a well-designed structure. The need to intervene is very clear, as the Spanish language cannot turn its back on a reality that does not currently benefit it. Therefore, not only the public authorities but also the private institutions must act, as should the people who are currently working with Spanish as a special language, both in Spain and in many other countries around the globe. In these moments of recovery, we are working with new forces and opening new paths in order to gain momentum for a project that is open to the collaboration of institutions, companies and interested people. We hope to have good news soon. Regarding the translator’s role as a terminologist, have you been able to observe any trends over the last few years? If so, what are they and what has changed? Many things have changed in the last few years, and those changes have brought significant progress. So I think they have changed for the better. We are increasingly seeing well-trained, versatile professionals with many resources at their disposal; however, they still need the same things that the previous professionals needed to produce quality work: in addition to knowledge about how things work, communication and language are still more necessary than ever in order to see the facts they are working on and all that they imply. Having a very open mind and lots and lots of common sense is key. What are the most crucial traits that a terminologist has to possess nowadays and what, in your opinion, lies in the future for terminology? The future of terminology must necessarily be an open future, because open is the future of languages, communication and professional relations. What I mean is that this future will depend on how the domains where terminology is present will evolve. It is quite difficult to know what will happen, but perhaps it is easier to guess how the future of the terminologist will be. The terminologist will have to be an open professional —just like their working field— with very broad training (gained in very different contexts, perhaps) and who will possess many resources for accessing specialized knowledge. Their main trait will probably be their ability to build bridges between scientists and linguists, between specialized knowledge and the knowledge of language. The good terminologist will be a versatile person who is not afraid to innovate. One of the projects you have been working on is ‘NEURONEO: Neology formation and the regulation process of neologisms in the Neurosciences’, which “aims to address the study and regulation of neological terminology in the different fields of Neurosciences in Spanish from a multidisciplinary perspective”. Why the field of neuroscience? Could you tell us more about the project? We chose the field of neuroscience because of two facts that we consider very significant: because of the enormous importance that a field focused on the exploration of the brain and the nervous system had, and because this domain held everything we were interested in analysing. It is a constantly evolving field, with many advances and a continuous production of new terminology. It is an innovative area in which the achievements in cutting-edge research are mainly narrated in English, and in which new terminological solutions must be then adopted in Spanish too. We are mainly interested in the study of terminological neology, but also terminological dependence, the relationship between Spanish and English in specialised communication, the collaboration of scientists in validating terminology, the interaction with linguists, as well as the bilingualism –I do not know if it is apparent in many cases– of many scientists. Communication in the neurosciences domain made all this and much more possible. Which book, paper, project, etc. would you recommend to people, and especially terminologists, to read/ follow? In 2021 and 2022, two books will be published in English under the title ‘Terminology: cognition, language and communication’ (vol. I and II), which contain the fundamental articles that have served to build the Communicative Theory of Terminology, now translated into English. The author, María Teresa Cabré, had published them over the last 25 years in other languages (mainly Catalan, Spanish and French), so many people have not been able to access the enormous amount of theory contained in these articles. They will be reference books for any terminologist. How useful do you find tools such as IATE? What do you think should be improved? There are sufficiently tested databases that we do not need to mention repeatedly in order to point out their numerous qualities. Anyone working in the terminology or the translation field knows the many advantages of using a tool such as IATE, which has been helping translators for many years now. However, since you are asking, in my opinion there are two important aspects that could be worked on to make IATE even better. One is the cross-linguistic asymmetry that occurs, because, as we know, in practice not all languages have the same weight or the same treatment in the database. The second would be to bolster the role of terminologists and their working methodology to ensure that most of the information in the entries in the different languages is extracted from original sources and not from translations. What advice would you give to novice terminologists? I will give them my opinion, so that you can consider it or not, and if it can help someone, according to their interests or their way of thinking, all the better. But if not, then so be it. I think it is important to think of terminology as we think of language and languages, to see the same beauty in it, because terminology does have it. It is a fantastic world, with many worlds, as many as there are specialities, and not as rigid as it has often been considered. In terminology there is communication, language, culture, ideology, knowledge… what more could one ask for? [1] García Palacios, Joaquín & Torres-del-Rey, Jesús & Maroto, Nava & Linder, Daniel & De Sterck, Goedele & Sánchez Ibáñez, Miguel. (2013). NeuroNEO, una investigación multidisciplinar sobre la neología terminológica. [2] CABRÉ, M. Teresa (2021). Terminology: cognition, language and communication. Volume I: Fundamental elements of terminology as a field of knowledge. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Series IVITRA Research in Linguistics and Literature. 308 pp. (in press) [3] CABRÉ, M. Teresa (2022). Terminology: cognition, language and communication. Volume II: Terminology at the intersection between interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Series IVITRA Research in Linguistics and Literature. 322 pp. (currently being edited) Written by Irene Arto Escuredo, ex-Schuman Terminology Trainee at the Terminology Coordination Unit (DG TRAD). She holds a BA in Translation and Interpreting by the University of Salamanca (Spain) and is currently carrying out a Master’s degree in Institutional Translation.
华金·加西亚·帕拉西奥斯(Joaquín García Palacios)取得拉美裔语言学博士学历,萨拉曼卡大学(西班牙)术语翻译专业(学位)的教授和AETER(西班牙语术语协会)的主席,其专注于研究术语、旧词新义、词汇学、词典编纂,西班牙语和翻译等领域。 您曾学过西班牙语语言学,您认为,在您的学术和职业生涯种,您是在哪个阶段被术语领域所吸引的呢? 在圣胡安·德拉·克鲁兹(San Juan de la Cruz)的著作中,我写了一篇关于爱和知识词汇为主题的博士论文,我那时候意识到我所研究的词汇与我在合作编写西班牙语词典时所使用的一般词汇是不一样的……我发现我在做的是别人所说的术语。在那个时候(20世纪90年代初),著名的语言学家特别关注术语的研究,这是一个完整的研究领域,非常有趣,也要做很多事情和学习很多知识。在获得博士学位后,我在萨拉曼卡大学的翻译和口译系找到了一份工作,自那时起一切都变了。那时起,我一直在研究和开设术语课程,这也是我翻译研究的一部分。我对应用语言学中的术语维度特别感兴趣。 在一个由科技和社交网络主导的世界里,术语学家是如何处理日益增长的新词呢? 通常,这需要耐心和知识。总有一些时候,新事物似乎是一种危险,总有一些人(知识分子或非知识分子)这样认为。但是新词并不一定代表一种语言的危险;相反,它们是其生命力的标志,是其适应新时代的能力的标志。如果你指的是一种特殊类型的新词,即来自其他语言的外来词,情况在一定程度上是相同的,但它也有自己的特点。正如我们所知,这是一个贯穿所有语言历史的反复出现的话题。这与说话人对自己的语言和占主导地位的语言的态度密切相关。这时我们可以采取极端的立场,但重要的是术语学家的评估(绝不应充满激情)是基于对事实的充分了解。重点是,语言随着社会的发展而发展,这种发展是基于自有资源产生的术语和外来词之间的平衡。我们需要知识和技能来正确地适应外国术语。 对于西班牙的其他官方语言,Termcat等机构正在努力避免加泰罗尼亚语中过多的外来词,并实现术语标准化。就西班牙语而言,你觉得我们已经做了足够的工作来避免日复一日地使用西班牙语中的英式英语吗?这该由谁来管呢? 它不是关于避免或控制那些既不可避免也不可控制的事情。就像我说的,这是一个适应和良好适应的问题。然而,与此同时,我们也有必要进一步促进除英语外的其他语言的专门交流。当然,有一种使国际交流更容易的语言是非常重要的,特别是用特殊的语言。但也必须照顾其他语言的文化。我们能不担心和关心一门在世界上像西班牙语那么重要的国际语言吗?你要知道,单靠人口统计是不够的。一定要做点什么,比我们现在所做的要多得多。注意一门语言意味着加强它,给予它比它已经拥有的更多的价值。从这个意义上说,在加泰罗尼亚用特殊的语言所做的工作在我看来是非常值得研究的,因为我们可以学到很多关于如何处理西班牙语或其他浪漫语言的知识。 2005年,您主持的AFTER(西班牙语术语协会)曾发起一个项目,根据M-Teresa Cabré的想法构建西班牙语术语库。这个项目目前进展如何? 该项目最初由西班牙语术语协会发起,当时特蕾莎·卡布尔(Teresa Cabre)是该协会的主席,现在她依然还是协会主席。这是一个综合性项目,旨在促进统一使用西班牙语的优质术语。如何做到这点呢?通过构建一个平台来获取语言学认可的术语,并由各个知识领域的专家进行验证。这是一个宏伟的工程,有着精心设计的结构。干预的必要性是非常明显的,因为西班牙语不能背弃当前对它不利的现实。此外,不仅是政府当局,私人机构也必须采取行动,目前在西班牙和全球许多其他国家把西班牙语作为一种特殊语言进行工作的人也应该这样做。在这些复苏的时刻,我们正与新的力量合作,开辟新的道路,以便为一个面向机构、公司和相关人员协作的项目获得动力。我们都在希望很快会有好消息。 考虑到译者作为术语学家的角色,您在过去的几年里观察到了什么趋势吗?要是有的话,那这趋势是什么呢?有发生了什么变化吗? 在过去的几年里,很多事情都发生了变化,这些变化也带来了显著的进步。我想它们已经有了好转了。现在,我们看到越来越多训练有素、多才多艺的专业人员拥有许多可用的资源;但无论如何,他们仍然需要与以前的专业人员一样的东西来制作高质量的作品:除了关于事物如何工作的知识,交流和语言比以往任何时候都更加必要,因为这有利于帮他们看到所研究的事实及其所暗示的一切。保持一个开放的头脑,大量的常识是关键。 现在术语学家必须具备的最重要的特征是什么呢?在您看来,术语学的未来意味着什么? 术语学的未来必然是一个开放的未来,因为语言、交流和专业关系的未来具有开放性。我的意思是,这个未来将取决于有术语存在的领域将如何发展。将会发生什么这是很难控制的,但也许猜测术语学家的未来会如何会相对简单一点。术语专家必须是一个思想开明的专业人士——就像他们的工作领域一样——接受过非常广泛的培训(可能是在非常不同的环境中获得的),并且拥有很多获取专业知识的资源。他们的主要特征很可能是他们有能力在科学家和语言学家、专业知识和语言知识之间架起桥梁。一个好的术语学家应该是一个多才多艺的人,敢于创新。 您一直致力于“神经元:旧词新义形成和神经科学的监管新词的过程(NEURONEO: Neology formation and the regulation process of neologisms in Neurosciences)”这个项目,该项目“旨在从多学科的角度研究和监管西班牙语神经科学不同领域的新词”。为什么是神经科学?您方便告诉我们更多关于这个项目的情况吗? 我们之所以选择神经科学这个领域,是因为我们认为这两个事实非常重要:一个专注于探索大脑和神经系统的领域具有巨大的重要性;这是一个不断发展的领域,许多进步和连续生产的新术语。这是一个创新的领域,尖端研究的成果主要是用英语叙述的,新的术语解决方案也必须采用西班牙语。我们主要对术语新语的研究感兴趣,但也对术语的依赖感兴趣,在专业交流中西班牙语和英语之间的关系,科学家在验证术语时的合作,与语言学家的互动,以及许多科学家的双语能力——我不知道在很多情况下是否明显。神经科学领域的交流让这一切变得更有可能。 有哪些书、论文、项目等,您会推荐给口笔译工作者,尤其是术语学家,去读或者说套用呢? 2021年和2022年,将有两本书以英文出版,书名为《术语:认知、语言和交流》(卷一和卷二),其中包含了一些基本的文章。这些文章曾经帮助建立了术语交际理论,现在已经被翻译成英语。作者Maria Teresa Cabre在过去的25年中以其他语言(主要是加泰罗尼亚语、西班牙语和法语)发表了这些文章,许多人也因此无法获得这些文章中涵括的大量理论。它们可成为所有术语学家的参考书。 您有没有发现像欧盟互动术语库(IATE)这么有用的工具呢?您觉得有哪些方面需要改进吗? 有一些经过充分测试的数据库,我们不需要为了指出它们的众多品质而反复提及。任何从事术语或翻译领域工作的人都知道使用像IATE这样的工具有许多优点,它多年来一直在帮助翻译人员。但是,既然你问了,在我看来,有两个重要的方面可以改进,以使晚迟到变得更好。一个是语言间的不对称,因为,正如我们所知,在实践中,并不是所有的语言在数据库中都有相同的权重或相同的处理方式。其次是加强术语学家及其工作方法的作用,以确保不同语言条目中的大部分信息是从原始来源提取的,而不是从翻译中提取的。 您对术语新手有什么忠告吗? 我会把我的意见告诉他们,这样你就可以考虑一下,如果能根据他们的兴趣和想法帮助到别人,那就更好了。但如果不是,那就这样吧。我认为很重要的一点是,我们应该像思考语言和语言一样思考术语,在术语中看到同样的美,因为术语确实具有这种美。这是一个奇妙的世界,有许多领域,有多少专业,就有多少领域,并不像人们通常认为的那么刻板。术语有沟通、语言、文化、意识形态、知识……一个人还能要求什么呢? [1] García Palacios, Joaquín & Torres-del-Rey, Jesús & Maroto, Nava & Linder, Daniel & De Sterck, Goedele & Sánchez Ibáñez, Miguel.(2013年)。新词语的多学科研究。 [2] CABRÉ, M. Teresa (2021). 《术语:认知、语言和沟通》。第一卷:作为知识领域的术语的基本要素。阿姆斯特丹/费城:John Benjamins。IVITRA系列《语言学与文学研究》308页(正在出版中) [3] CABRÉ, M. Teresa (2022)。《术语:认知、语言和交际》。第二卷:跨学科与跨学科交汇处的术语。阿姆斯特丹/费城:约翰·本杰明斯。语言学和文学的伊维特拉系列研究。322页。(目前正在编辑) 作者:Irene Arto Escuredo,术语协调单位(DG TRAD)前舒曼术语规培生。她拥有西班牙萨拉曼卡大学翻译学士学位,目前正在攻读机构翻译方向的硕士学位。