Stakeholder Analysis 101: Identification, Mapping & More


2020-03-11 02:50 project manager


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A stakeholder is anyone that has a vested interest in a project. By that definition, there are many types of stakeholders. There are external stakeholders, such customers and users, and internal stakeholders, such as executives and team members. A stakeholder always wants the project to succeed and has unique expectations as to what defines that success. If your stakeholders aren’t satisfied with the results of a project, you’ve failed. Therefore, in order to successfully complete a project, it’s essential to gain a clear understanding of who your stakeholders are, what their expectations are and what motivates them. This process is called stakeholder analysis. What Is Stakeholder Analysis? Stakeholder analysis identifies and prioritizes stakeholders before the project begins. It organizes stakeholders into groups according to how much they participate in the project, what their interest level is and how much influence they have. Once these people are identified and organized, then you must figure out the best way to involve each stakeholder in the project, including the best channels for communication based on their needs. Related: Stakeholder Management Strategies & Tools Communication is key to stakeholder analysis because stakeholders must buy into and approve the project, and this can only be done with timely information and visibility into the project. The former puts the project in context while the latter builds trust. All this leads to the project being in strategic alignment with stakeholders and the overall business goals of the company. Why It’s Important Stakeholder analysis is a way to get help from key project players. Once you determine who these key stakeholders are, then you can bring them into the kickoff to help align the project with strategic objectives. Their experience helps a project avoid pitfalls and getting their help builds stronger relationships. They can also help with conflict resolution during the project execution. Stakeholders are also crucial for delivering the resources you need to get the project done right. When there is good communications between a stakeholder and a project manager, then the stakeholder can help deliver the people, tools and other resources necessary to get the project done. The process of going through a stakeholder analysis is also a way to build a relationship of trust with stakeholders. Once you have a line of communications open with stakeholders, develop a good rapport and show transparency into the project, you encourage trust. These elements should be considered in your stakeholder management plan. How to Identify Stakeholders Before getting into the analysis, one must first know who the stakeholders are. There are a few questions that have to be posed, such as figuring out who the most influential stakeholders are in terms of the project. These are going to be clients or customers, the people for whom the project was created. Then you want to know any additional stakeholders that are affected by the project. This could include those who would be environmentally impacted by the project, for example. Ask yourself which stakeholders have control of the project resources. These stakeholders are going to be part of the influential group. Don’t forget to collect what the stakeholders motivations and interests are, as this will help you to manage them and their expectations. Finally, there will be people who are important to the project that will not be identified as stakeholders or at least not the key stakeholders of the project. You still need to keep them informed to some extent without making them feel neglected or left out of the loop. Not all stakeholders should be treated equally: there would be no way to proceed with the project. Stakeholder Mapping and How to Do It Stakeholder analysis uses a technique called stakeholder mapping. Before getting started you first must decide on the focus of the project. This will determine who is most important in terms of stakeholders. Once that is figured out, then you can follow these steps. List the Stakeholders As noted above, stakeholders come in all shapes and sizes. While it’s important to narrow the focus that comes in later. At this point you want to list everyone who is a stakeholder, no matter the level of their significance to the project. As you list your stakeholders, keep in mind that they fall into two main categories: those who are affected by the project and those who contribute to it. For example, the project manager and the team are contributors to the project, while the end-user is someone who is affected by it. Though it is possible that stakeholders fall into both categories. The better this list is, the less likely you’ll be delayed or sidetracked during the project. Analyze Stakeholders What are the roles and expectations of all those stakeholders that you have listed above? Some stakeholders are going to have more importance to the project and their expectations will have more of an impact than others. This is where you make those determinations. You can discern this by using an influence-interest matrix, which is a box broken into four sections. You should place your stakeholders in one of the four boxes based on their interest and influence levels. The top of the box is broken into two sections: keep informed and manage closely. The lower half of the box is also broken into two sections: minimal contact and keep satisfied. Anyone placed to the right of the box has more influence, while anyone placed near the top of the box has more interest. If a stakeholder is placed in the top right, then they have a lot of interest and influence, making them important players in the project. Prioritize Stakeholders Once you have a thorough list, you can begin prioritizing them by importance to the project. Decide who among them have the most influence on the project and are affected by it. You can use the influence-interest matrix again to help with prioritizing stakeholders. Don’t forget that the status of your stakeholders are not static, they can change throughout the course of the project. Stakeholder analysis is not a one-time thing, but is a process that should continue throughout the project. Engage Stakeholders Finally, with the information created in your stakeholder map, you figure out how to engage your stakeholders. This is the process by which you win over stakeholders, get their understanding and support to help fuel the project, putting it on the right course. This leads to a communication plan that outlines the channel and frequency of communications between you and each stakeholder. You can use our communication plan template to get started. Improves Stakeholder Management Once you have identified and analyzed your stakeholders, you’re going to have to work with them. That’s where comes in. Our award-winning project management software has all the tools you need to manage your projects and keep your stakeholders engaged. Reporting Naturally, stakeholders have an interest in the project. But, that doesn’t mean you have to give them every detail. Sometimes it’s the big picture that counts. has a real-time dashboard that paints the project in broad strokes, such as task progress, costs and project variance. These colorful graphs and charts make it easy to see where the project is right now. Being prepared for stakeholder presentations goes a long way, which is why has reports that can be filtered to show the information stakeholders want. Reports can be created and shared with just a click, so you’re never without an answer. Report on status, tasks, plans, variance and more. Unlimited File Storage Projects make paperwork. Stakeholders like those business cases and want to have access to them. has unlimited file storage, so add as many project-related documents and images as you like. Everything is in one place and easy to find. Keep stakeholders happy. is a cloud-based project management software that helps project managers manage their projects, teams and stakeholders. With planning, tracking and reporting tools, managers and teams are prepared for every project phase.  See how can support you and your stakeholders with this free 30-day trial. Requirements Analysis & Ensuring Stakeholder Satisfaction Risk Analysis 101: How to Analyze Project Risk Project Organization 101: How to Structure Your Project How to Make a Stakeholder Management Plan
利益相关者是对项目有既得利益的人。根据这个定义,有许多类型的利益相关者。有外部利益相关者,如客户和用户,以及内部利益相关者,如行政人员和团队成员。利益相关者总是希望项目成功,并对成功的定义有独特的期望。 如果你的涉众对项目的结果不满意,你就失败了。因此,为了成功地完成一个项目,必须清楚地了解你的利益相关者是谁、他们的期望是什么以及他们的动机。这个过程被称为利益相关者分析。 什么是利益相关者分析? 利益相关者分析在项目开始之前确定利益相关者并对其进行优先排序。它根据利益相关者参与项目的程度、他们的兴趣水平和他们的影响力,将他们组织成小组。一旦确定并组织了这些人员,您就必须找出让每个利益相关者参与项目的最佳方式,包括根据他们的需要进行沟通的最佳渠道。 相关:利益相关者管理策略和工具 交流是利益攸关方分析的关键,因为利益攸关方必须购买并批准项目,而这只能在及时了解项目信息和了解项目的情况下完成。前者将项目置于上下文中,而后者则建立信任。所有这些都导致项目与利益相关者和公司的整体业务目标保持战略一致。 为什么它很重要 利益相关者分析是从关键项目参与者那里获得帮助的一种方法。一旦你确定了这些关键的利益相关者是谁,那么你就可以把他们带到起点来帮助使项目与战略目标保持一致。他们的经验帮助一个项目避免了陷阱,帮助他们建立了更牢固的关系。它们还可以帮助解决项目执行期间的冲突。 利益相关者对于提供完成项目所需的资源也是至关重要的。当涉众和项目经理之间有良好的沟通时,涉众可以帮助交付完成项目所需的人员、工具和其他资源。 通过利益相关者分析的过程也是建立与利益相关者信任关系的一种方法。一旦你与利益相关者建立了沟通渠道,建立良好的关系,并在项目中显示透明度,你就会鼓励信任。这些要素应该在您的利益相关者管理计划中考虑。 如何识别利益相关者 在进行分析之前,首先必须知道谁是利益相关者。有几个问题需要提出,例如确定谁是项目中最有影响力的利益相关者。他们将成为客户或客户,为他们创建项目的人。 然后,您希望了解受项目影响的任何其他涉众。例如,这可能包括那些将受到项目环境影响的人。 问问自己哪些利益相关者对项目资源有控制权。这些利益相关者将成为有影响力的集团的一部分。不要忘记收集利益相关者的动机和兴趣,因为这将帮助你管理他们和他们的期望。 最后,将有一些对项目很重要的人不会被确定为利益攸关方,或者至少不是项目的主要利益攸关方。你仍然需要在一定程度上让他们了解情况,而不让他们感到被忽视或被排除在循环之外。并非所有利益攸关方都应得到平等对待:没有办法继续开展该项目。 利益相关者映射及其实现 利益相关者分析使用一种称为利益相关者映射的技术。在开始之前,你必须先决定项目的重点。这将决定谁是最重要的利益相关者。一旦发现了这一点,你就可以遵循这些步骤。 列出利益相关者 如上所述,利益相关者有各种形式和规模。虽然缩小稍后出现的焦点是很重要的。在这一点上,你想列出每个利益相关者,不管他们对项目的重要性程度如何。当您列出您的利益相关者时,请记住它们属于两个主要的类别:那些受项目影响的人和对项目作出贡献的人。 例如,项目经理和团队是项目的贡献者,而最终用户是受项目影响的人。尽管利益相关者可能同时落入类别。这个列表越好,你在项目中被延迟或被忽略的可能性就越小。 分析利益相关者 您上面列出的所有利益相关者的角色和期望是什么?一些利益相关者将对项目更重要,他们的期望将产生比其他人更大的影响。这就是你做出这些决定的地方。 您可以通过使用影响-兴趣矩阵来识别这一点,它是一个分成四个部分的盒子。你应该把你的利益相关者放在四个盒子中的一个盒子里,根据他们的兴趣和影响程度。 盒子的顶部分为两部分:保持信息和密切管理。盒子的下半部分也分为两部分:最小接触和保持满意。任何放置在盒子右边的人都有更大的影响力,而放置在盒子顶部附近的任何人都有更多的兴趣。如果利益相关者被置于最右边,那么他们有很多的兴趣和影响,使他们成为项目的重要参与者。 优先考虑利益相关者 一旦你有了一个完整的列表,你就可以开始按项目的重要性对它们进行排序。决定其中谁对项目的影响最大,并受其影响。您可以再次使用影响-兴趣矩阵来帮助优先考虑利益相关者。 不要忘记,你的利益相关者的状态不是静态的,他们可以在整个项目过程中改变。利益相关者分析不是一次性的事情,而是应该在整个项目中继续的过程。 参与利益相关者 最后,通过在您的利益相关者地图中创建的信息,您可以找到如何让您的利益相关者参与进来。这是你赢得利益相关者的过程,获得他们的理解和支持以帮助推动项目,使它走上正确的道路。这导致了一个沟通计划,概述了你和每个利益相关者之间沟通的渠道和频率。您可以使用我们的通信计划模板开始。 ProjectManager 。com 改善利益相关者管理 一旦你确定并分析了你的利益相关者,你就必须和他们一起工作。这就是 ProjectManager 的地方。com 进来了。我们屡获殊荣的项目管理软件拥有管理项目和让您的利益相关者参与进来所需的所有工具。 报告 自然,利益相关者对该项目有兴趣。但这并不意味着你必须给他们每个细节。有时候重要的是这张大照片。ProjectManager 。com 有一个实时的仪表盘,用广泛的笔画绘制项目,如任务进度、成本和项目差异。这些彩色的图形和图表使我们很容易看到项目现在的位置。 为利益相关者的演讲做好准备工作有很长的路要走,这就是为什么 ProjectManager 。com 有可以过滤的报告,以显示涉众想要的信息。只需单击一次即可创建和共享报表,因此您永远不会没有答案。报告状态、任务、计划、差异等。 无限文件存储 项目制作文件。利益相关者喜欢这些商业案例,他们希望能够接触到它们。ProjectManager 。com 有无限的文件存储,所以添加尽可能多的项目相关文档和图像。一切都在一个地方,很容易找到。让利益相关者高兴。 ProjectManager 。com 是一个基于云的项目管理软件,帮助项目经理管理他们的项目、团队和利益相关者。通过规划、跟踪和报告工具,经理和团队为每个项目阶段做好准备。查看 ProjectManager 。com 可以为您和您的利益相关者提供30天免费试用。 需求分析和确保利益相关者满意 风险分析101:如何分析项目风险 项目组织101:如何构建项目 如何制定利益相关者管理计划