What Is a Decision Matrix? (Example & Template Included)


2023-11-08 20:00 project manager


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Projects can be viewed as a series of decisions. From planning to execution, project managers and their teams are constantly choosing between one option and another or even many different options. Using a decision matrix can help them better evaluate their choices and prioritize work. Learn what a decision matrix is and when you should use it. We’ll even link to a free decision matrix template for Excel that you can use when next trying to figure out the best course of action. We’ll also explain how to use a decision matrix, list other decision matrices and more. What Is a Decision Matrix? A decision matrix is a way to evaluate and prioritize various alternatives to unemotionally and logically choose the best one. This is done by rating each alternative by a set of criteria. That criteria could be cost, quality, ease of use or anything, really. Each alternative is then rated one, being the worst, and five, being the best. A decision matrix lines up a number or alternatives on the top row, while on the right side is a column that lists the criteria by which you’ll rate each of the alternatives. The rating is usually one through five, with one being the least likely to meet the criteria and five being the most likely to meet the criteria. Decision matrices are best when there’s a large list of alternatives to choose from, but they can be effective tools for prioritizing a smaller set of alternatives. Either way, project managers and their teams can make decisions on their gut, guided by emotion or even unconscious bias. The decision matrix will remove those biases from the decision-making process. When a decision has been made, then the real work begins and that requires project management software to plan. ProjectManager is award-winning project management software that has powerful Gantt charts that help you schedule your tasks, link all four types of task dependencies and even filter for the critical path to identify the essential tasks. Once you set a baseline, then you can monitor schedule and cost variance in real time to help keep your project on track. Get started with ProjectManager today for free. When Should You Use a Decision Matrix? A decision matrix, as the name suggests, is used to help one come to a decision. In that case, it can be used in project management or any industry. It can even help one make a personal decision divorced from emotion. But it really comes in handy when you’re managing a project because it helps project managers and their teams evaluate and prioritize their tasks. Therefore, it can be used at any point in a project’s life cycle, from deciding if the project is worth initiating to any decisions that are necessary during the completion of the project. Basically, you can look at when you should use a decision matrix as whenever you have a lot of options to do something, but you have to narrow it down to one thing to do. A decision matrix should also be used if you have a set of criteria that the decision has to meet. The decision matrix is a great tool to use those criteria to come up with the best choice. But you can even use it when there have been many options that have been reduced to a few. The decision matrix will help determine which of those few is the right one. Decision Matrix Example To make a decision matrix more understandable, let’s explore a made-up scenario in which one would be used. A manufacturing company is looking at a variety of products to introduce into the marketplace. There are four options and four criteria to help them make a choice. Those criteria include price, which has a weight of four, being the most important factor for the manufacturer. Customer demand has a weight of three, quality has a weight of two and ease of use is rated at one, as it’s the least important factor of the four criteria. The manufacturer then rates each of the four different products by the four criteria on a decision matrix. The regular rating is multiplied by the weighted rating to create a final score of 30, for product one, 40 for product two, 50 for product three and 60 for product four. Product four has the highest score and that is the product the manufacturer decides to move forward with. Decision Matrix Template When making a decision, you can draw a decision matrix on a piece of paper or download our free decision matrix template for Excel. It’s a customizable document that allows you to add as many alternatives as you need to as well as whatever criteria you’d like to use to judge each of the alternatives. Using our free decision matrix template saves you time and you can even archive the document as part of your records and share it with the whole project team to get their input. How to Make a Decision Matrix Whether you use our free decision matrix template or make your own, there’s a procedure that you should follow to get the most out of it. These steps will help you get the most out of using a decision matrix. 1. Identify Your Alternatives Before you begin, you have to have a list of choices from which to evaluate. These can be tasks in a project, which vendors to use, products to make, or even part of your decision-making process when figuring out whether to go forward with a project or not. The alternatives are listed horizontally across the top of your decision matrix. 2. Define a Decision-Making Criteria The next step is to determine the criteria by which you’ll measure each of the various alternatives on your decision matrix. Criteria can be almost anything, from how much the alternative will cost your company to the return on investment or the quality of your deliverables. You can choose several and they’ll help you weed out the bad choices from the good ones. 3. Create a Scale for the Decision Criteria A decision criteria scale is simply a best-to-worst rating. On our free decision matrix template, we go from one to five, where one is the least acceptable to five is the most acceptable option. Each of the alternatives will be rated according to each of the specific criteria with this scale. 4. Assign a Weight to Each Decision Criteria Item (Optional) The weight for each criterion is helpful in determining the importance of each criterion to the various alternatives. It’s not necessary to add weight to the rating, but it can be very helpful in making a decision. A weight scale is usually one to five, with one being not so important and five being very important. For example, if cost is the paramount consideration, then the weight would be five. You’ll multiply the weight rate against the regular weight, with the highest number being your best choice. 5. Create Your Decision Matrix Now, make the decision matrix. Again, you can download our free decision matrix template or just make a grid on a piece of paper or whiteboard and follow these instructions: alternatives go on the top row—it can be broken into two columns, one for weighted rating and one for regular rating— and the left-hand column is for your criteria. 6. Fill The Decision Matrix Finally, you’ll fill out the decision matrix by adding a rating to each alternative column, one for weight (if you’re using it) and the other for a normal rating. This is done for each criterion and then is added up to a total, which is multiplied by the total weighted rating if you’re using that. Again, the alternative with the highest rating wins. Types of Decision Matrices A decision matrix is only one of several types of decision matrices. You can use it or one of the below. If you want, you can use all of them if the decision is proving difficult to make. Each helps you understand the alternatives better. Here’s a brief explanation of three different types of decision matrices. Pugh Decision Matrix A Pugh decision matrix is another criteria-based model that helps you choose the best choice out of many alternatives. It looks very much like the decision matrix we’ve been talking about in that it also works on a grid with alternatives on top and criteria stacked on the side. Eisenhower Matrix The Eisenhower matrix is a simpler tool used for task management. It’s a box broken into four quadrants for urgent, not urgent and important, not important. Depending on where you place the task it will be done, scheduled, delegated or deleted. DACI Matrix DACI is an acronym for driver, approver, contributor and informed, which is used to define and make clear who has authority in various situations. It is used to assign responsibility and determine the roles of team members in a project. Benefits of Decision Matrix Analysis Using a decision matrix is great for taking a complex problem and solving it or prioritizing tasks. But more than that, it provides reasons as to why you made the decision. Because each alternative is measured against a specific criterion you can show why one alternative was chosen over another. It removes the emotional response or even an unconscious bias you might have and leads one to a logical decision that can be defended. How ProjectManager Helps You Keep Track of Your Projects There’s a lot of work that goes into decision-making and it’s part of the job of a project manager and their project team. But once that decision has been made, it needs to be acted on. That’s where project management software comes in. ProjectManager is award-winning project management software that helps you plan, manage and track your work in real time. We’ve already shown how you can take a decision and turn it into an actionable plan. Now, let’s look at how you can track that work to ensure that it stays on schedule and within the planned budget. Track Progress With Real-Time Dashboards Whenever you need a high-level view of the project’s progress and performance just toggle over to our real-time dashboard. It collects live data and displays it on easy-to-read graphs and charts that show time, cost, workload and much more. Unlike lightweight software tools, our dashboard doesn’t take you away from the project to manually configure the dashboard. Ours is ready when you are with a snapshot of your project in real time. Keep Track of Labor Costs With Secure Timesheets Another tool to monitor your project to ensure you’re keeping to the schedule is our secure timesheets. They not only streamline your payroll process and make it easy for timesheets to get auto-filled or just repeat last week’s tasks, but they also provide a window into how productive each team member is by allowing you to see how much of their tasks they’ve completed. Once submitted, timesheets are locked to ensure no tampering. There are also resource management features that make it easy to see the availability of your team, including PTO, global holidays and vacation time, when making assignments. The color-coded workload chart allows you to see at a glance who is overallocated and then you can balance the team’s workload right from that chart so they’re all working at capacity and staying productive. ProjectManager is online project management software that connects teams in the field, in the office and all places in between. They can share files, comment at the task level and foster better collaboration. Our software also has automated workflows with task approval settings, task management and risk management features, which help you keep your project on track. Get started with ProjectManager today for free.
项目可以看作是一系列的决策。从计划到执行,项目经理和他们的团队不断地在一个选项和另一个选项甚至许多不同的选项之间进行选择。使用决策矩阵可以帮助他们更好地评估他们的选择和优先工作。 了解什么是决策矩阵以及何时应该使用它。我们甚至会链接到一个免费的Excel决策矩阵模板,您可以在下次尝试找出最佳行动方案时使用。我们还将解释如何使用决策矩阵,列出其他决策矩阵等。 什么是决策矩阵? 决策矩阵是一种评估和优先考虑各种替代方案的方法,以不带感情和逻辑地选择最佳方案。这是通过一组标准对每个备选方案进行评级来实现的。这个标准可以是成本,质量,易用性或任何东西,真的。每个选项都被评为1,最差,5,最好。 决策矩阵在第一行排列了一个数字或备选方案,而在右侧是一列,列出了您对每个备选方案进行评级的标准。评级通常是一到五,其中一个是最不可能满足标准的,五个是最有可能满足标准的。 当有大量的备选方案可供选择时,决策矩阵是最好的选择,但它们也可以是优先考虑较小的备选方案的有效工具。无论哪种方式,项目经理和他们的团队都可以在情感甚至无意识偏见的指导下凭直觉做出决定。决策矩阵将从决策过程中消除这些偏见。 当一个决定已经作出,然后真正的工作开始,这需要项目管理软件来计划。ProjectManager是一款屡获殊荣的项目管理软件,它具有强大的图表,可以帮助您安排任务,链接所有四种类型的任务依赖关系,甚至过滤关键路径以识别基本任务。一旦您设置了基准,那么您就可以实时监控进度和成本差异,以帮助您的项目保持正常。立即免费开始使用ProjectManager。 什么时候应该使用决策矩阵? 决策矩阵,顾名思义,是用来帮助人们做出决定的。在这种情况下,它可以用于项目管理或任何行业。它甚至可以帮助一个人做出脱离情感的个人决定。但当你管理一个项目时,它确实派上了用场,因为它可以帮助项目经理和他们的团队评估和优先考虑他们的任务。 因此,它可以在项目生命周期的任何时候使用,从决定项目是否值得启动到项目完成期间的任何必要决策。基本上,你可以看看什么时候你应该使用决策矩阵,当你有很多选择做某事,但你必须把它缩小到一件事要做。 如果你有一套决策必须满足的标准,也应该使用决策矩阵。决策矩阵是一个很好的工具,可以使用这些标准来做出最佳选择。但你甚至可以使用它时,有许多选项已减少到几个。决策矩阵将有助于确定这几个中的哪一个是正确的。 决策矩阵示例 为了使决策矩阵更容易理解,让我们来研究一个使用决策矩阵的虚构场景。一家制造公司正在寻找各种产品引入市场。有四个选项和四个标准来帮助他们做出选择。 这些标准包括价格,其权重为4,是制造商最重要的因素。客户需求的权重为3,质量的权重为2,易用性的权重为1,因为它是四个标准中最不重要的因素。 然后,制造商根据决策矩阵上的四个标准对四种不同产品中的每一种进行评级。常规评级乘以加权评级以产生产品一的最终分数30、产品二的最终分数40、产品三的最终分数50和产品四的最终分数60。产品四得分最高,这是制造商决定继续生产的产品。 决策矩阵模板 在做出决策时,您可以在一张纸上绘制决策矩阵或下载我们的免费Excel决策矩阵模板。这是一个可定制的文档,允许您添加尽可能多的替代方案,因为你需要以及任何标准,你想用来判断每个替代方案。使用我们的免费决策矩阵模板可以节省您的时间,您甚至可以将文档存档为记录的一部分,并与整个项目团队共享以获取他们的输入。 如何制作决策矩阵 无论您是使用我们的免费决策矩阵模板还是自己制作,都应该遵循一个步骤来充分利用它。这些步骤将帮助您充分利用决策矩阵。 1.确定您的替代方案 在你开始之前,你必须有一个选择列表,从中进行评估。这些可以是项目中的任务,要使用的供应商,要制造的产品,甚至是在确定是否继续进行项目时的决策过程的一部分。备选方案水平地列在决策矩阵的顶部。 2.定义决策标准 下一步是确定衡量决策矩阵中各种备选方案的标准。标准几乎可以是任何东西,从替代方案的成本到投资回报率或可交付成果的质量。你可以选择几个,他们会帮助你淘汰坏的选择从好的。 3.为决策标准创建量表 决策标准量表只是一个从最好到最差的评级。在我们的免费决策矩阵模板中,我们从1到5,其中1是最不可接受的选项,5是最可接受的选项。将根据该量表的每个特定标准对每个备选方案进行评级。 4.为每个决策标准项分配权重(可选) 每个标准的权重有助于确定每个标准对各种备选方案的重要性。这是没有必要增加权重的评级,但它可以在作出决定非常有帮助。体重秤通常是一到五,一个不太重要,五个非常重要。例如,如果成本是最重要的考虑因素,那么权重将是5。您可以将权重比率乘以常规权重,最高的数字是您的最佳选择。 5.创建您的决策矩阵 现在,做一个决策矩阵。同样,您可以下载我们的免费决策矩阵模板,或者只是在一张纸或白板上制作一个网格,并遵循以下说明:备选方案放在最上面一行-它可以分为两列,一列用于加权评级,另一列用于常规评级-左侧列用于您的标准。 6.填写决策矩阵 最后,您将通过向每个备选列添加评级来填写决策矩阵,一个用于权重(如果您正在使用它),另一个用于正常评级。这是为每个标准完成的,然后加起来是一个总数,如果你使用它,它乘以总加权评级。同样,具有最高评级的替代方案获胜。 决策矩阵的类型 决策矩阵只是几种类型的决策矩阵之一。你可以使用它或下面的一个。如果你愿意,你可以使用所有的,如果决定是很难作出。每一个都可以帮助你更好地理解替代方案。下面简要介绍三种不同类型的决策矩阵。 Pugh决策矩阵 Pugh决策矩阵是另一种基于标准的模型,可帮助您从众多备选方案中选择最佳选择。它看起来非常像我们一直在谈论的决策矩阵,因为它也适用于网格,顶部是备选方案,侧面是标准。 艾森豪威尔矩阵 艾森豪威尔矩阵是用于任务管理的简单工具。这是一个盒子,分为四个象限,紧急,不紧急,重要,不重要。根据您放置任务的位置,它将被完成,计划,委派或删除。 DACI矩阵 DACI是driver、professor、contributor和informed的首字母缩写,用来定义和明确谁在各种情况下有权威。它用于分配责任并确定项目中团队成员的角色。 决策矩阵分析的优势 使用决策矩阵非常适合解决复杂问题或优先考虑任务。但更重要的是,它提供了你为什么做出决定的理由。因为每一个选择都是根据一个特定的标准来衡量的,所以你可以展示为什么一个选择比另一个选择更好。它消除了你可能有的情绪反应,甚至是无意识的偏见,并引导你做出一个可以辩护的逻辑决定。 ProjectManager如何帮助您跟踪项目 有很多工作要做决策,这是项目经理和项目团队工作的一部分。但是一旦做出了决定,就需要采取行动,这就是项目管理软件的用武之地。ProjectManager是屡获殊荣的项目管理软件,可帮助您实时规划、管理和跟踪您的工作。我们已经展示了如何做出决定并将其转化为可行的计划。现在,让我们来看看如何跟踪工作,以确保它保持在计划的时间表和预算内。 使用实时仪表板跟踪进度 无论何时,您需要查看项目进度和性能的高级视图,只需切换到我们的实时仪表板即可。它收集实时数据,并将其显示在易于阅读的图形和图表上,显示时间,成本,工作量等。与轻量级软件工具不同,我们的仪表板不会让您离开项目手动配置仪表板。当您实时查看项目快照时,我们的服务就已经准备就绪。 使用安全的时间表跟踪人工成本 另一个监控您的项目以确保您遵守时间表的工具是我们的安全时间表。它们不仅简化了您的工资流程,使时间表更容易自动填写或重复上周的任务,而且还提供了一个窗口,让您了解每个团队成员的工作效率,让您可以看到他们完成了多少任务。一旦提交,时间表将被锁定,以确保不被篡改。 还有资源管理功能,可以在分配任务时轻松查看团队的可用性,包括PTO,全球假期和休假时间。颜色编码的工作量图表让您一眼就能看到谁被过度分配了,然后您可以从该图表中平衡团队的工作量,以便他们都在满负荷工作并保持生产力。 ProjectManager是一个在线项目管理软件,它连接了现场,办公室和所有地方的团队。他们可以共享文件,在任务级别发表评论,并促进更好的协作。我们的软件还具有自动化工作流程,包括任务审批设置、任务管理和风险管理功能,可帮助您保持项目正常运行。立即免费开始使用ProjectManager。