Since the onset of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Ukrainians’ attitudes on language policy appear to be shifting, according to a recent survey of people residing in the country.
Rating Group, a non-governmental organization (NGO) that was established in 2008 to conduct sociological research in Ukraine, released the results of its most recent survey on the country’s national identity, patriotism, and values. In its report of the survey results (link is in Ukrainian), Rating Group included the results of past iterations of the same survey (which it has now conducted 17 times), allowing for a longitudinal analysis of the sociolinguistic shifts taking place across the nation.
“On the eve of Ukraine’s Independence Day (which was last month, Aug. 24), the respondents were asked the questions about their confidence in victory, emotions they feel today about the country and themselves, assessment of the position of Ukraine in the world, their civic and linguistic identity, the frequency of consumption of Russian content, and their attitude towards various ethnic groups,” Rating Group wrote in an English-language summary of the survey results.
On the whole, the survey suggests that Ukrainian citizens are making more of an effort to speak Ukrainian in face of the war with Russian. The group polled 1,000 Ukrainians all across the country, excluding occupied areas in Donbas and Crimea. Since the survey was conducted in December 2021, the number of people using Russian as their primary language at home has fallen from 26% to just 13%.
Perhaps the most striking data is the respondents’ attitudes toward the country’s language policy — since the NGO first began conducting this survey, the number of respondents saying they supported giving official status to Russian alongside Ukrainian throughout the country (not just in specific regions) hovered between one-fifth and one-quarter of respondents. Since Russia’s invasion of the country, however, that number has fallen dramatically, to just 3% (from 22% in September 2021).
Even in regions with large proportions of Russian speakers, this number is fairly slim — only 3% of respondents in the eastern part of Ukraine and 5% in the southern part support giving Russian official status.
Additionally, the report notes that there’s been a “sharp decrease” in consumption of Russian-language media within the country, with the number of people saying they “never” watch Russian television shows increasing nearly threefold. Euromaidan Press, another Ukrainian NGO, claims that the results of this survey show the country is undergoing a “Ukrainization” process as a result of the war in Ukraine — a sort of counter-reaction to the Russification the country endured under Russian Imperial and Soviet policies.
评级小组 (Rating Group) 是一个非政府组织 (NGO)，成立于2008年，旨在在乌克兰进行社会学研究，并发布了有关该国民族认同，爱国主义和价值观的最新调查结果。在调查结果报告中 (链接为乌克兰语)，评级小组包括了同一调查的过去迭代结果 (现在已经进行了17次)，从而可以对整个国家发生的社会语言变化进行纵向分析。
“在乌克兰独立日 (8月24日是上个月) 前夕，受访者被问及他们对胜利的信心、他们今天对国家和自己的情感、对乌克兰在世界上地位的评估、他们的公民和语言身份，俄罗斯内容的消费频率，以及他们对不同种族群体的态度，” 评级小组在调查结果的英文摘要中写道。
总体而言，调查表明，面对与俄语的战争，乌克兰公民正在做出更多的努力说乌克兰语。该小组对全国各地的1,000名乌克兰人进行了调查，不包括顿巴斯和克里米亚的占领区。自从这项调查在2021年12月进行以来，在家中使用俄语作为主要语言的人数已从26% 人下降到仅13% 人。
也许最引人注目的数据是受访者对国家语言政策的态度-自从非政府组织首次开始进行这项调查以来，表示支持在全国 (不仅仅是在特定地区) 与乌克兰语一起给予俄罗斯官方地位的受访者数量在5分之1至四分之一之间徘徊。然而，自俄罗斯入侵该国以来，这一数字已急剧下降，仅为3% (从2021年9月的22%)。
即使在说俄语的地区占很大比例的地区，这个数字也相当渺茫-只有3% 的受访者在乌克兰东部和5% 的南部支持给予俄罗斯官方地位。
此外，报告还指出，俄罗斯国内的俄语媒体消费 “急剧减少”，说他们 “从不” 看俄罗斯电视节目的人数增加了近三倍。另一个乌克兰非政府组织Euromaidan Press声称，这项调查的结果表明，由于乌克兰战争，该国正在经历 “乌克兰化” 进程，这是对俄罗斯在俄罗斯帝国和苏联政策下遭受的俄罗斯化的一种反反应。