How to Make a Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM)

如何制作需求可追溯性矩阵 (RTM)

2022-09-14 19:00 project manager


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Requirements are the tasks that must be done in order to deliver a final project. That includes the features, functions and so forth. Tracing those features can ensure that none slip through the cracks, a process that’s best completed by using a requirements traceability matrix. If you’ve never heard of a requirements traceability matrix and you’re managing a project, you’ll need a crash course. We’re going to explain what requirements traceability is, how to make a requirements traceability matrix and explore the different types to help you ensure all of your project requirements are fulfilled by the end of the project. What Is Requirements Traceability? As products become more complex, so do requirements. The requirements can move across departments in an organization as they go through the development process, and that doesn’t include involved stakeholders. Requirements traceability is a way for the product team to keep track of these requirements and make sure they’re fulfilled. Not only that, but each decision made over the course of the project will impact the project’s requirements. Understanding that impact is crucial and requires transparency in the activities taking place. Requirements traceability ensures that each critical project requirement and the delivery of a viable product has been fulfilled. Tracking these variables over the life cycle of a project can be difficult over the product development life cycle, and having documentation solidifies that you’re not missing any vital points. Having the visibility of requirements traceability into requirements such as design, development, testing and support, minimizes negative outcomes and maximizes productivity. Other benefits include improving team efficiency, easier compliance with regulations and higher-quality products. Project management software helps you track every step of your product development and make sure you’re fulfilling your requirements along the way. ProjectManager is online software with features that help you track requirements in real time. Kanban boards can be customized for requirements tracing, providing transparency into each step and automation to move to the next status. Task approvals can be set to ensure that quality expectations are met throughout the process. Get started with ProjectManager today for free. What Is a Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM)? A requirements traceability matrix is the document used to track the requirements as it moves through product development. It’s the documentation that confirms that all product requirements have been fulfilled. It lists the requirements, tests, test results and any issues that may have come up over the course of testing that needs to be addressed to bring the project to a successful close. The requirements traceability matrix is a document that maps user requirements with test cases. The document captures all client requirements and traces those throughout the product development. This document is then delivered at the end of the software development life cycle. The main purpose is to ensure all requirements are accounted for and have been checked with test cases. No functionality should be left unchecked at the end of this process. How to Create an RTM Used in software testing and product development, a requirements traceability matrix is an important tool to make sure you fulfill every user requirement. No project should be without one, which is why we’ll take you through a step-by-step guide to making your own requirements traceability matrix. 1. Define Goals The goal of a requirements traceability matrix is to track the user requirements for the project, and it’s easiest to list them on a spreadsheet. But an RTM can be used for a variety of things. For example, you can make sure your requirements have been tested or are compliant. You can also determine which requirements are impacted if something changes. Regardless, the first step is to define the goal. 2. Collect Artifacts Based on your goal, you’ll start to collect relevant artifacts that include at least the requirements, tests, test results and issues. After you’ve collected the artifacts, you’ll want to get the most current requirements documents. Each requirement should have a unique ID number that doesn’t change, even if the requirement is reordered. Test cases also need to be defined and given a status. For example, they might be started, done or blocked. If the test fails, then whatever issues led to that failure should be detailed. 3. Create Requirements Traceability Matrix Now you’re ready to build the RTM. Use a spreadsheet and make four columns. Each column will be for an artifact. The first column outlines the requirements lists, the next has the tests and following that are the test results. You’ll also have a column for issues. This is the bare minimum and you can add more as needed for your project. For instance, a column that numbers each of the requirements would be useful. 4. Copy and Paste You’ve done the work and now you have to add it to the requirements traceability matrix. Simply add the requirements, test cases, test results (if you have them at this point) and issues to the spreadsheet. 5. Revive the RTM The requirements traceability matrix is a living document that’ll you’ll often reference for updates. As requirements change, so does the RTM. Some requirements might drop from the project or another test case may be added; all of these changes need to be reflected in the requirements traceability matrix. The requirements ID number, however, should stay the same even if the requirement is reordered or reused. Free Requirements Traceability Matrix Template for Excel Because you’ll be using the requirements traceability matrix throughout the project, it’s helpful to download our free RTM template for Excel. Once you’ve downloaded the free requirements traceability template for Excel, all you have to do is fill in the blanks to create a document of your requirements, tests and issues. Types of Requirements Traceability Matrices Now that we know what a requirements traceability matrix is and how to create one, let’s look deeper into the topic. There are three different types of requirements traceability matrix: forward traceability, backward traceability and bidirectional traceability. Let’s take a moment to define each. Forward Traceability The forward traceability matrix is used to see the requirements of the test cases. This allows for each of the requirements to have a test and also allows one to know that the project’s trajectory is positive. Backward Traceability Backward traceability maps the test cases with the requirements. This is done to avoid scope creep and going beyond the initial requirements without cause to do so. Bidirectional Traceability As you might guess, a bidirectional traceability matrix is one that combines the forward and the backward traceability in one document. This ensures that every requirement has a related test case. It’s clear how important a requirements traceability matrix is for project management. If you miss a requirement, you might not deliver what users want. Having a list of those requirements and being able to map them in whatever direction is best for your project ensures that all have been included. But you can also see that they involve a lot of work and manual labor to create, fill in and update. ProjectManager Helps Track Requirements ProjectManager is online project management software that allows you to track requirements in real time. Plan, schedule and track requirements all in the same tool. As teams implement and test requirements, everyone gets transparency into the process to ensure that nothing is neglected. Get Overview With Real-Time Dashboard Whenever you need a high-level view of the requirements and testing, you can look at our real-time dashboard. It automatically collects live data and crunches the numbers to show you six metrics in easy-to-read graphs and charts. Monitor your team’s workload, tasks and time while also checking on costs and more. Best of all, there’s no setup required. Dive Deeper Into Data With Customizable Reports When you need more detail than the dashboard can deliver use our one-click reports. You can generate reports on status or portfolio status if you’re managing more than one project. But there are also reports on time, cost, variance and more. All can be filtered to report on only the data you want to see to help you make more insightful decisions. They can easily be shared to keep stakeholders updated. Our software helps you plan, schedule and track work in real time. Stay on top of changes with notifications and even comment and share files across departments. Everyone is always working on the same page which helps productivity. Add to that features for task and resource management and you have an all-around project management software. ProjectManager is award-winning project management software that helps you work more productively and track that work to stay on schedule. Connect teams, departments and even outside vendors to facilitate communication and keep everyone working better together. Join teams at NASA, Siemens and Nestle who use our tool to deliver success. Get started with ProjectManager today for free.
需求是交付最终项目必须完成的任务。这包括特征、功能等。跟踪这些特征可以确保没有任何特征滑过裂缝,这一过程最好通过使用需求可追溯性矩阵来完成。 如果您从未听说过需求可追溯性矩阵,并且您正在管理一个项目,那么您将需要一个速成班。我们将解释什么是需求可追溯性,如何制作需求可追溯性矩阵,并探索不同的类型,以帮助您确保在项目结束时满足所有项目需求。 什么是需求可追溯性? 随着产品变得越来越复杂,需求也变得越来越复杂。需求可以在组织的各个部门在开发过程中移动,而不包括相关的利益相关者。 需求可追溯性是产品团队跟踪这些需求并确保满足这些需求的一种方式。不仅如此,在项目过程中做出的每个决定都会影响项目的需求。理解这一影响至关重要,需要在正在进行的活动中保持透明度。 需求可追溯性可确保满足每个关键项目需求和可行产品的交付。在项目的生命周期中跟踪这些变量在产品开发生命周期中可能很困难,并且有文档可以巩固您没有遗漏任何关键点。 具有对需求 (如设计、开发、测试和支持) 的可追溯性的可见性,可最大限度地减少负面结果,并最大限度地提高生产率。其他好处包括提高团队效率,更容易遵守法规和更高质量的产品。 项目管理软件可帮助您跟踪产品开发的每个步骤,并确保您在此过程中满足要求。ProjectManager是在线软件,具有帮助您实时跟踪需求的功能。可以为需求跟踪定制看板,从而为每个步骤提供透明度,并自动化以移至下一个状态。可以设置任务批准,以确保在整个过程中满足质量期望。立即免费开始使用ProjectManager。 什么是需求可追溯性矩阵 (RTM)? 需求可追溯性矩阵是用于跟踪需求在产品开发过程中的文档。它是确认所有产品要求都已满足的文档。它列出了要求,测试,测试结果以及在测试过程中可能出现的任何问题,这些问题需要解决才能使项目成功完成。 需求可追溯性矩阵是将用户需求与测试用例映射的文档。该文档捕获了所有客户要求,并在整个产品开发过程中跟踪了这些要求。然后在软件开发生命周期结束时交付本文档。主要目的是确保所有需求都已得到说明,并已与测试用例一起检查。在此过程结束时,不应取消检查任何功能。 如何创建RTM 在软件测试和产品开发中,需求可追溯性矩阵是确保您满足每个用户需求的重要工具。任何项目都不应该没有,这就是为什么我们将带您逐步指导您制作自己的需求可追溯性矩阵的原因。 1.定义目标 需求可追溯性矩阵的目标是跟踪项目的用户需求,最容易在电子表格中列出这些需求。但是RTM可以用于各种各样的事情。例如,您可以确保您的要求已经过测试或符合要求。如果某些内容发生变化,您还可以确定哪些需求会受到影响。无论如何,第一步是确定目标。 2.收集文物 根据您的目标,您将开始收集至少包括需求,测试,测试结果和问题的相关工件。收集完工件后,您将需要获取最新的需求文档。每个需求都应该有一个不变的唯一id号,即使需求被重新排序。还需要定义测试用例并给出状态。例如,它们可能被启动、完成或阻止。如果测试失败,则应详细说明导致该失败的任何问题。 3.创建需求可追溯性矩阵 现在你已经准备好构建RTM了。使用电子表格并制作四列。每一列将用于工件。第一列概述了需求列表,下一列有测试,下面是测试结果。您还将有一个问题专栏。这是最低要求,您可以根据项目需要添加更多内容。例如,列出每个需求的列将很有用。 4.复制粘贴 您已经完成了工作,现在您必须将其添加到需求可追溯性矩阵中。只需将需求,测试用例,测试结果 (如果此时有) 和问题添加到电子表格中即可。 5.恢复RTM 需求可追溯性矩阵是一个活的文档,您将经常参考更新。随着需求的变化,RTM也是如此。某些需求可能会从项目中删除,或者可能会添加其他测试用例; 所有这些更改都需要反映在需求可追溯性矩阵中。但是,即使重新排序或重新使用需求,需求id号也应保持不变。 Excel的免费要求可追溯性矩阵模板 因为您将在整个项目中使用需求可追溯性矩阵,所以下载我们的免费RTM Excel模板会很有帮助。一旦您下载了Excel的免费需求可追溯性模板,您所要做的就是填写空白,创建您的需求、测试和问题的文档。 需求追溯矩阵的类型 现在我们知道什么是需求可追溯性矩阵以及如何创建一个,让我们更深入地研究该主题。需求可追溯性矩阵有三种不同类型: 前向可追溯性、后向可追溯性和双向可追溯性。让我们花点时间来定义每一个。 前向可追溯性 前向可追溯性矩阵用于查看测试用例的要求。这允许每个需求都有一个测试,也允许人们知道项目的轨迹是积极的。 向后可追溯性 向后可追溯性将测试用例与需求映射。这样做是为了避免范围蠕变和超出初始要求而没有理由这样做。 双向可追溯性 您可能会猜到,双向可追溯性矩阵是将前向和后向可追溯性结合在一个文档中的矩阵。这样可以确保每个需求都有一个相关的测试用例。 很明显,需求可追溯性矩阵对于项目管理的重要性。如果您错过了一个要求,您可能无法交付用户想要的东西。拥有这些需求的列表,并能够按最适合您的项目的任何方向映射它们,可确保所有需求都已包含在内。但是您还可以看到,它们涉及大量的工作和体力劳动来创建,填写和更新。 项目管理器帮助跟踪需求 ProjectManager是在线项目管理软件,可让您实时跟踪需求。计划、安排和跟踪需求都在同一个工具中。随着团队实施和测试需求,每个人都可以透明地进入流程,以确保没有任何事情被忽略。 使用实时仪表板获取概述 每当您需要需求和测试的高级视图时,您可以查看我们的实时仪表板。它会自动收集实时数据并处理数字,以易于阅读的图形和图表向您显示六个指标。监控团队的工作量、任务和时间,同时检查成本等。最重要的是,不需要设置。 使用可定制的报告深入研究数据 当您需要比仪表板更多的细节时,可以使用我们的一键式报告。如果您要管理多个项目,则可以生成有关状态或投资组合状态的报告。但也有关于时间、成本、差异等的报告。所有这些都可以被过滤,只报告你想看的数据,以帮助你做出更有洞察力的决定。它们可以很容易地共享,以保持利益相关者的更新。 我们的软件可帮助您实时计划,安排和跟踪工作。通过通知随时了解更改,甚至在部门之间进行评论和共享文件。每个人都在同一页面上工作,这有助于提高生产力。添加到任务和资源管理功能中,您将拥有一个全方位的项目管理软件。 ProjectManager是屡获殊荣的项目管理软件,可帮助您更高效地工作并跟踪工作以按计划进行。将团队,部门甚至外部供应商联系起来,以促进沟通,并使每个人都能更好地合作。加入NASA,西门子和雀巢的团队,他们使用我们的工具来取得成功。立即免费开始使用ProjectManager。