WBS Dictionary: A Quick Guide with Examples


2021-04-08 06:00 project manager


阅读模式 切换至中文

A WBS dictionary is a complement to your WBS that conveys detailed info about each component. It’s one of the three pillars that support the scope management in your project: the other two are a work breakdown structure (WBS) and a project scope statement. These three components will give you the scope baseline for your project. Without a project scope baseline you can’t measure performance effectively, which puts your project in danger of going off schedule and beyond budget. Let’s explore what a WBS dictionary is, how to make one and the best practices to ensure you pull it off correctly. Create a work breakdown structure dictionary and execute your projects with ProjectManager.com’s Gantt charts. Click to learn more! What Is a WBS Dictionary? A WBS dictionary is where the details of the tasks, activities, and deliverables of the work breakdown structure are located. The content includes whatever milestones are related, the project scope and in some instances dates, resources, cost and quantity. The WBS dictionary allows you to define each of the steps on the WBS and how to execute them to reach the final deliverable of the project. The document includes a work package, which defines the related tasks, and control accounts, which integrate the scope, budget, actual cost and schedule for those tasks. The definitions in the WBS dictionary are not lengthy, though. They’re a brief scope or statement of work. This makes one foot on the tripod of your scope baseline. The other two feet are the scope statement for the whole project and the WBS that you are fleshing out with the WBS dictionary. All three are essential to measure and monitor the scope of a project. What Is the Purpose of a WBS Dictionary? A work breakdown structure is a visual tool, and because of its graphic nature, it doesn’t have the space to explain the details of each step. To add this information to the WBS would be to make it difficult to read and use. The purpose of the WBS dictionary, then, is to add additional context to the WBS and increase its usability. This is why work breakdown structures have a title and often a number indicating each individual step. These labels correspond to the WBS dictionary, where the explanation of the step’s purpose and execution is detailed. This gives team members who refer to the WBS dictionary a deeper understanding of what’s needed to complete the project successfully. The WBS dictionary can also help make sure that the project is meeting whatever regulatory or compliance issues govern the work. It can also make sure the deliverables are meeting the quality expectations of the project stakeholders. Using a WBS dictionary is a way to make sure that the project work is done right the first time and avoid costly and timely revisions. Who Creates the WBS Dictionary? The WBS dictionary is created by the project manager, but it is not made in isolation. The project manager will organize the activities necessary to fill it out and make sure that the WBS dictionary is done correctly, but will also interview and seek the help of others to make sure it’s thorough and complete in its descriptions. While the project manager is coordinating the collection of the material that will define and direct the steps on the WBS, they are harvesting information from a variety of sources. For example, they will interview subject matter experts to make sure that they’re answering all questions revolving around the task and doing so correctly. Another great resource are the team members themselves. These are people who have been assembled to work on the project because of their level of skills, expertise and experience with the work. They are invaluable, in that their real-world knowledge will provide a perspective that might be missing from other avenues. How to Create a WBS Dictionary Once you’ve done the research and are ready to make your WBS dictionary, remember to keep the details for each element on the WBS short and to the point. The main reasons for a WBS dictionary’s usefulness is that it’s easily understood by the project team. While there’s no set format for a WBS dictionary, these twelve steps are a common thread that ties together most documents: 1. Identify Item Every step on your WBS should have a code or account identifier. This allows you to list the steps on your WBS dictionary to correspond to the right item on the WBS. 2. Describe It Here is where the task is detailed. It should be communicated succinctly and clearly. 3. Note Assumptions and Constraints Note any assumptions and/or constraints about the task, such as dependencies with other tasks, equipment needed, etc. That way you can plan for them and avoid any potential delays. 4. Assign Owner Each task will be assigned to a team member who will own the execution and successful completion of that task. This is where that person is identified. 5. Set Milestone A milestone is an important date in your project, usually indicating the end of one phase and the beginning of another. They should be indicated in the WBS dictionary. 6. Make Schedule Whether your WBS breaks down into tasks or deliverables they’ll have to be scheduled, such as determining their start and end dates. 7. List Resources Note the tools, materials, equipment, etc. in your resource plan that are required to execute the task. 8. Calculate Cost Each task will have related costs to execute, whether that’s materials, supplies, or time. That cost estimation should be included here. 9. Define Quality Note the quality expectations that your stakeholders have for each step of the WBS. 10. Know Acceptance Criteria There needs to be a person with authority to say that each task has been completed correctly. There must be criteria to determine this. Here’s where you can note that person and the criteria used. 11. Collect Technical References If there are any guidelines, manuals, standards, etc. needed to guide the execution of the tasks, they should be collected here. 12. Settle Agreements Finally, list any contracts, corporate agreements and other documents that are part of the project. WBS Example To give you a better idea of what a WBS dictionary is, let’s look at a free work breakdown structure template that you can download from ProjectManager.com. The five phases of the project are outlined in the template, with the first initiation phase sketched out as an example. Using this, we can see the first task is setting up the hardware. Following the format above, we created a simple spreadsheet that lists the 12 steps of a WBS dictionary. First is the item number, then the description, which will detail where the hardware needs to be set up. If there are any assumptions or constraints, they’d be listed. In our example, the terminals need to be facing away from the office windows to avoid any glare. The owner, the person responsible for the setup, is listed. The date the installation must be completed by is also listed, followed by the schedule which shows the duration from start to finish. Resources include any necessary tools and instructions. The cost is the hourly rate of the person doing the installation. The quality is that the hardware must be operational. The project manager will okay the work. Technical references include the floorplan and electrical plan to show where electrical outlets are and, finally, the installation must adhere to the guidelines for the office space. How ProjectManager.com Helps You Create a WBS Dictionary ProjectManager.com is a cloud-based tool that organizes your tasks and team for greater efficiency. Once you have your scope management in place, including your WBS and WBS dictionary, you need to get those tasks in a plan. Managing all those tasks can feel overwhelming, but they can be corralled with our online Gantt chart. Just input your tasks and they show up in the Gantt chart project view. Give each task a start and end date and then they populate a timeline. Now you can see your whole project in one place. Some of your tasks are likely not able to start or finish until another has started or finished. These dependent tasks can create bottlenecks later in the project if you don’t identify them in your plan, which is easy on our Gantt chart. Just drag the dependent task to the other tasks it’s dependent with and they’re linked. The milestones you outlined in your WBS dictionary can also be added to the Gantt chart. They are easily inserted and show up as a diamond-shaped icon. This breaks up your larger project into smaller phases, which makes it easier to manage. ProjectManager.com is a cloud-based software that gives you all the tools you need to execute your WBS more efficiently. You can monitor and track progress and performance, then generate filterable reports with one click to make it easy to update stakeholders. Join the tens of thousands of teams that are already using our tool by taking part in this free 30-day trial today. Project Controls: A Quick Guide Critical Chain in Project Management: A Quick Guide A Quick Guide to Program Management Project Roles & Their Responsibilities
维布斯词典扩充了维布斯,传达各个组件详细信息,支持项目范围管理三大支柱之一:其他两支柱为工作分解结构(维布斯词典)和项目范围声明。 三个组件将给你的项目提供范围基线。若无项目范围基线,难以高效衡量绩效,就会让项目偏离计划和超出预算。 一起尝试维布斯词典吧,以及如何创建一个能确保良好使用的词典。 建立工作分解结构词典,用工程管理家网站的甘特图开始体验吧,请点击! 维布斯词典是什么? 维布斯词典是工作分解结构任务,活动和可交付成果详细信息所在地方。拥有任何相关里程碑,项目范围和在特定情况下时间,资源,成本以及数量。 有了维布斯词典,您就能定义维布斯词典里的步骤了,还能执行这些步骤用来实现项目最终结果。其中有工作包界定了相关任务和控制账户,综合了任务范围,预算,实际成本和时间表。 不过,维布斯词典的定义很简单。是简短范围或工作陈述。一方面能在范围基线三脚架上。另外两方面能在整个项目范围语句和正在用维布斯词典充实的维布斯。这三个方面对于衡量和监控项目范围非常必要。 使用维布斯词典是为了什么? 工作分解结构是可视化工具,因其图形性质并未有空间用以解释每一步骤细节。将信息加入维布斯词典增加阅读和使用难度。所以维布斯词典是为维布斯加入上下文以及可用性。 因此,工作分解结构有标题,还都是数字来表示单独步骤。这些数字与维布斯词典有关,详细说明步骤目的以及执行。使参考维布斯词典团队成员能够更了解项目所需内容。 维布斯词典同样能确保项目满足管理工作法规以及法规遵循问题,确保可交付成果满足项目涉众质量期望。使用维布斯词典能保证项目工作一次完成。 维布斯词典的发明者是谁? 维布斯词典由项目经理发明,但并非孤立制作。项目经理将组织必要活动填写维布斯词典保证完成维布斯词典,然而,也将采访寻求别人帮助确保透彻和完整的描述。 项目经理在协调材料收集,这些材料将定义和指导维布斯词典上步骤,收集信息。比方,采访主题专家正确回答关于任务的所有问题。 其他很好资源是团队成员。因其技能水平,专业知识和工作经验他们能到项目工作。他们很有参考价值,因其真实世界知识会提供一个其他途径所缺乏的视角。 怎样建立一个维布斯词典 一旦完成研究准备好编制维布斯词典,记住维布斯词典元素细节保持简短而中肯。维布斯词典之所以有用是因为容易被项目团队理解。 尽管维布斯词典并未设定格式,但这十二个步骤是将大多数文档连接的共同线索: 1.标识工程 维布斯词典上的步骤都要有代码或帐户标识符。能在维布斯词典上列出步骤,以便与维布斯词典正确项对应。 2.做些描述 下面是任务详细说明。应简明扼要传达。 3.注意假设以及限制 注意任何关于任务的假设,限制,例如,与其他任务依赖关系,所需设备,这样就可以为它们制定计划避免延迟。 4.分配所有者 任务将分配给拥有该任务的执行和成功完成团队成员。 5.设立里程碑 里程碑是工程中重要日期,通常表示阶段结束和开始。应该在韦伯斯字典中注明。 6.制作时间表 无论韦伯斯词典分解成任务或交付品,都要安排,如确定起始日期。 7.列出资源 在资源计划中记录执行任务所需的工具,材料,设备等。 8.计算成本 不管是材料,供应品还是时间,每项任务都有相关执行成本。应列费用估计数。 9.定义质量 注意项目涉众对维布斯词典质量期望。 10.明白验收标准 需要有权威的人说任务正确完成。必须有标准。可以注意到使用的标准。 11.收集技术参考资料 若有指导任务执行所需指导方针,手册,标准等,应在此收集。 12.达成协议 最后列出作为项目合同,公司协议及其他文件。 维布斯词典案例 为能更好了维布斯词典,看一个免费工作分解结构模板,可以从工程管理者网下载。模板概述了项目五个阶段,讲第一个启动阶段作为案例。 可以看到,在使用时,第一个任务为设置硬件。按照上面格式,创建简单的电子表格,列出维布斯词典的12个步骤。项目编号,描述,详细说明硬件要在何处设置。 列出假设或约束。终端需要背对办公室窗户避免强光。 安装要完成日期已经列出,显示起始时间表格包括任何必要工具和说明。 安装人每小时费率就是成本。质量是硬件,而且要可操作。工程经理会认可的。技术参考包括,平面图以及电气平面图显示插座位置,安装要遵守办公空间指导原则。 工程管理者网怎样帮你创建维布斯词典 工程管理者网基于云端,可以组织任务以及团队用来提高效率。一旦有了范围管理(包括维布斯词典)要将这些任务纳入计划。 管理所有任务会很难,然而,其可能会被在线甘特图所包围。只需输入任务,就会显示甘特图项目视图。给任务起始日期,填充时间线。现在便可在一个地方看到整个项目。 一些任务可能在另一些任务起始前不能正常使用。如若不在计划中识别可能很容易会在项目后期产生麻烦。只需将依赖任务拖到其他任务,就会被链接起来。 在维布斯词典中概述里程碑可添加到甘特图中。容易插入显示菱形图。这将较大项目分解为较小阶段,便于管理。 工程管理者网为基于云计算软件,提供了更有效执行维布斯词典所需工具。可以监视,跟踪进度以及性能,并一键生成可筛选报告。加入数以万计的团队,已有百万团队通过参加免费30天试用加入我们。 工程控制:快速指南 工程管理中的关键链:快速指南 工程管理的快速指南 工程定位&责任