I·ATE Term of The Week: European Easter Dishes


2021-04-03 20:00 terminology Coordination


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Easter season is already here, which means that the colourful eggs and the delicious chocolate bunnies are back. Easter is the biggest Christian holiday and many countries all around the world celebrate it. As in other celebrations, at Easter it is common to cook something something extraordinary using all the foodstuffs that have been forbidden during Lent. Some of these desserts and dishes are known and cooked worldwide. It is the case of the chocolate eggs or the lamb, for example. We have already published an article where we talked about the paschalino arni in Greece, l’agneau de Pâques in France and l’agnello al forno, arrosto (roasted) or fritto (fried) in Italy. The Easter lamb is also prepared in Portugal (borrego asado) and England (roasted lamb). Nevertheless, in many other countries there are a lot of typical desserts, pastries and dishes that, although not as well known, are also delicious. Read on to find out more about some of them. In Spain, Easter is not Easter without torrijas – slices of stale bread soaked in milk and coated with egg, fried in olive oil and served with sugar all over it– or without leche frita (fried milk). There are also some delicious regional desserts, like the pestiños in Andalucía (a piece of dough fried in olive oil and glazed with sugar), the filloas in Galicia (similar to the French crêpes) and the monas de Pascua that godfathers usually give to their godchild at this time of the year in Catalonia, Valencia and Murcia. Although there are many variations, the traditional mona de Pascua is a brioche with hard-boiled eggs on top of it. Nowadays it is also possible to find monas as cakes with chocolate eggs and different decorations like feathers or baby chick figurines. However, there is more than just desserts! In Spain, it is also typical to prepare a potaje de vigilia at Easter. It is a kind of stew prepared with chickpeas, cod and spinach eaten on Fridays of Lent. Since meat is forbidden during this period, the cod and the chickpeas provide enough protein. In the other country of the Iberian Peninsula, the Portuguese usually eat the folar de Páscoa. The basic folar is a sweet bread made with flour, water, eggs, sugar, lemon zest and margarine, with a boiled egg on top of it. However, there are many variations of the recipe, so it is possible to also find fennel, cinnamon or anise in some of them. During Easter, in Portugal they also prepare the pão de ló – a cake traditionally made with eggs, sugar, flour and yeast– or the broas de mel, which are honey cookies coming from Madeira. In the boot of Europe, the colomba is a very typical Easter dessert. It is a dove-shaped sweet bread, very similar to the panettone, with candied fruits or cream inside and covered with almonds and sugar. Italians also prepare the schiacciata di Pasqua, typical from Tuscany, which is a sweet bread flavoured with aniseed, and the torta pasqualina, a cake coming from Liguria filled with chard, ricotta and boiled eggs. In the south of Italy, also other typical Easter dishes are prepared. In Naples, for example, they eat the pastiera napoletana (a wheat cake prepared with ricotta cheese, candied peel and orange flower water) and the casatiello dolce napoletano, another typical Easter cake also known as pigna di Pasqua and whose main feature is that it is made with criscito (fermented dough). However, the non-sweet version is better known: the casatiello napoletano is a salty bread that can be stuffed with different kinds of meats and cheeses and with hard-boiled eggs on top of it. At Easter, Irish and British usually eat the simnel cake, a tasty fruit cake covered by a layer of marzipan and decorated with eleven marzipan balls that represent the eleven disciples of Jesus Christ (excluding Judas). Although the simnel cake is nowadays eaten on Easter Sunday, it was traditionally prepared for the fourth Sunday of Lent, also known as the Mothering Sunday, which explains why this cake is also associated with Mother’s Day. Hot cross buns are also a typical British and Irish Easter recipe, although they are also eaten in New Zealand, Australia or Canada. They are spiced sweet buns made with flour, raisins and spices, but many variations can be found. They are marked with an icing cross on top that is said to represent the cross on which Jesus Christ died. In Poland, many delicious typical dishes and desserts are prepared at this time of the year. Żurek is a very popular sour rye soup, made from soured rye flour and garnished with a boiled egg and white kiełbasa, which is a Polish white sausage. For dessert, Polish people prepare mazurek. Apart from a dance and a type of music, mazurek is also a typical Easter flat cake that can be made of one or two sheets of shortcrust pastry and covered with another sheet of sponge cake. A layer of marmalade keeps both sheets together, and another layer of icing covers the top. Dried fruits, candied fruits or nuts are used to decorate the cake. Another typical Easter Polish dessert is babka, a sweet yeast bread similar to the Italian panettone sometimes also baked with rum-soaked raisins. It can be covered with a layer of icing or be left plain. The typical Easter sweet bread in Bulgaria – although it is also prepared in Romania or Serbia – is called козунак (cozonac). Cozonac is made with milk, yeast, butter, sugar and eggs, but there are many regional variations and we can find Turkish delights, raisins, nuts or lemon zest in some of them. Almond shavings or caster sugar can be also used to cover the top of this delicious sweet bread. In Slovenia, Easter festivities start with the traditional Slovenian Easter breakfast, consisting of cooked ham, horseradish – a slightly spicy plant eaten to accompany the ham –, bread and the traditional coloured hardboiled eggs known as pihri, decorated with flowers and coloured naturally. For dessert, Slovenes usually eat their typical Easter cake, the potica, a nut roll pastry eaten for dessert. The most traditional version includes walnuts, but the nut paste or filling can also include pecans, honey, dried fruits, chocolate or poppy seeds. Hungry? Don’t hesitate to try out these typical Easter recipes and enjoy the deliciousness that European cultures provide! Our special thanks to all the trainees who cooperated with us and told us what they eat in their country at this time of the year. TermCoord wishes you all a Happy Easter! Crush Mag Online. 2021. The Significance of Hot Cross Buns at Easter | Crush Magazine. [ONLINE] Available at: https://crushmag-online.com/eat-hot-cross-buns-easter/. [Accessed 30 March 2021]. Culture.pl. 2021. 10 Traditional Dishes of Polish Easter | Article | Culture.pl. [ONLINE] Available at: https://culture.pl/en/article/10-traditional-dishes-of-polish-easter. [Accessed 30 March 2021]. Emily’s Guide to Krakow. 2021. 11 Polish Easter Foods You Must Try This Week – Emily’s Guide to Krakow. [ONLINE] Available at: https://emilysguidetokrakow.com/2016/03/24/11-polish-easter-foods-you-must-try-this-week/. [Accessed 30 March 2021]. Gerard Paul. 2021. History of Simnel Cake: From Mothering Sunday to Easter – ManyEats. [ONLINE] Available at: https://manyeats.com/history-of-simnel-cake/. [Accessed 30 March 2021]. Good Food Ireland. 2021. A Little History of Hot Cross Buns – Good Food Ireland. [ONLINE] Available at: https://goodfoodireland.ie/uncategorized/little-history-hot-cross-buns/. [Accessed 30 March 2021]. Iguaria! Receita e Culinária. 2021. Receitas Tradicionais da Páscoa de Portugal · Iguaria! Receita e Culinária. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.iguaria.com/dicas/receitas-tradicionais-da-pascoa-de-portugal/. [Accessed 30 March 2021]. Odlums. 2021. Easter Simnel Cake Recipe | Odlums. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.odlums.ie/recipes/easter-simnel-cake/. [Accessed 30 March 2021]. Oh-Barcelona. 2021. La Mona de Pascua | Spanish Traditional Food | Easter Cake Recipes | Oh-Barcelona. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.oh-barcelona.com/en/blog/things-to-do-2/traditions/mona-pascua-3899. [Accessed 30 March 2021]. Potaje de garbanzos, bacalao y espinacas para Semana Santa, receta para quien tiene poco tiempo para cocinar | Gastronomía & Cía. 2021. Potaje de garbanzos, bacalao y espinacas para Semana Santa, receta para quien tiene poco tiempo para cocinar | Gastronomía & Cía. [ONLINE] Available at: https://gastronomiaycia.republica.com/2019/04/12/potaje-de-garbanzos-bacalao-y-espinacas-para-semana-santa-receta-para-quien-tiene-poco-tiempo-para-cocinar/. [Accessed 30 March 2021]. Receitas e Menus. 2021. Receitas Tradicionais de Páscoa em Portugal – Receitas e Menus ©. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.receitasemenus.net/receitas-tradicionais-de-pascoa-em-portugal/. [Accessed 30 March 2021]. Recetas caseras con fotos paso a paso de El Invitado de Invierno. 2021. Torrijas, Spanish French toast. [ONLINE] Available at: https://invitadoinvierno.com/torrijas-a-spanish-easter-treat/. [Accessed 30 March 2021]. STO. 2021. Easter feast – typical Slovenian holiday fare | I feel Slovenia. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.slovenia.info/en/stories/the-tastes-of-slovenian-easter. [Accessed 30 March 2021]. The Spruce Eats. 2021. 32 Traditional Easter Foods From Around the World. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.thespruceeats.com/traditional-easter-foods-from-around-the-world-4161077. [Accessed 30 March 2021]. Written by Irene Arto Escuredo, Schuman Terminology Trainee at the Terminology Coordination Unit (DG TRAD). She holds a BA in Translation and Interpreting by the University of Salamanca (Spain) and is currently carrying out a Master’s degree in Institutional Translation.
复活节季已经到来了,这意味着彩蛋和美味的巧克力兔又回归了。复活节是基督教最大的节日,也是世界上许多国家都会庆祝的节日。和其他庆祝活动一样,在复活节,人们通常会用大斋节期间禁食的所有食物来烹调一些不同寻常的食品。 某些甜点和菜肴众人皆知且被世界各地的人们所烹制。例如,巧克力彩蛋或羊肉。我们已经发表的一篇文章谈到了希腊的paschalino arni,法国的l'agneau de páques和意大利的l'agnello al forno,用arrosto(烤)或fritto(炸)的方式。人们也会准备复活节羊肉,比如葡萄牙的borrego asado及英格兰的roasted lamb。 然而,在许多其他国家,有许多传统的甜点,糕点和菜肴,虽然不是很出名,但也很美味。请继续阅读,一起探询更多的美味佳肴吧。 在西班牙,没有torrijas的复活节就不是复活节,torrijas是指用牛奶浸过的干面包片,抹上鸡蛋汁,用橄榄油煎过后,在表面铺满糖或是leche frita(炸牛奶)。还有一些美味的地区性甜点,如安达卢西亚的pestiños(一种在橄榄油中油炸的面团并裹上糖衣),加利西亚的filloas(类似于法国的crêpes),以及通常在每年这个时候,在加泰罗尼亚,瓦伦西亚和穆尔西亚地区,由教父们送给教子的monas de Pascua。虽然有很多不同的做法,但传统的monas de Pascua是一种奶油面包,装饰着煮鸡蛋。如今,也能找到以巧克力蛋或其他装饰品点缀的monas蛋糕,例如羽毛或小雏鸡雕像。 然而,不仅仅是甜点!在西班牙,在复活节准备一份potaje de vigiria也是传统。它是一种用鹰嘴豆,鳕鱼和菠菜准备的炖菜,在四旬斋的星期五吃。由于这段时间禁止吃肉,鳕鱼和鹰嘴豆提供了足够的蛋白质。 在伊比利亚半岛的另一个国家,葡萄牙人通常吃folar de páscoa。最基本的folar是一种甜面包,用面粉,水,鸡蛋,糖,柠檬皮和人造黄油做成,上面放一个煮鸡蛋。然而,也有许多变化的作法,也有可能也发现里面有茴香,肉桂或茴芹。 在复活节期间,葡萄牙人还会准备pão de ló--一种传统上,用鸡蛋,糖,面粉和酵母做成的蛋糕--或者是broas de mel,产自马德拉的蜂蜜饼干。 在欧洲,科伦巴(colomba)是非常典型的复活节甜点。这是一种鸽子形状的甜面包,与帕内托(panettone)非常相似,包裹着蜜饯或奶油,上面覆盖着杏仁和糖。意大利人也会准备意大利烤饼(schiacciata di Pasqua),一种典型的托斯卡纳烤饼,其实是一种用茴香调味的甜面包,以及意大利烤饼( torta pasqualina),这是一种来自利古里亚的蛋糕,里面包有甜菜,乳清干酪和煮鸡蛋。 在意大利南部,也会烹制其他的传统复活节菜肴。例如,在那不勒斯,他们吃pastiera napoletana(一种用乳清干酪,糖皮和橙花水调制的小麦蛋糕)和casatiello dolce napoletano,这是另一种传统的复活节蛋糕,也被称为pigna di Pasqua,其主要是由发酵面团(criscito)制成。然而,非甜的版本更为人所知:即casatiello napoletano,这是咸面包,可以塞入不同种类的肉和奶酪,并在面包上放上煮鸡蛋。 在复活节,爱尔兰人和英国人通常吃simnel蛋糕,这是一种美味的水果蛋糕,上面覆盖着一层杏仁糖,装饰着十一个杏仁糖球,代表耶稣基督的十一个门徒(不包括犹大)。虽然现在人们在复活节的星期天吃simnel蛋糕,但传统上它是为四旬斋的第四个星期天准备的,而这一天也被称为归宁日或母亲节,这也解释了为什么这种蛋糕也和母亲节联系在一起。 十字餐包也是典型的英国和爱尔兰复活节美食,尽管在新西兰,澳大利亚或加拿大也会吃。它们是用面粉,葡萄干和香料制成的甜面包,但可以发现许多变化的品种。面包上有一个糖霜十字架,据说代表耶稣基督死在上面的十字架。 在波兰,每年的这个时候,也都会准备许多传统的菜肴和甜点。Zurek是一种非常受欢迎的酸黑麦汤,由酸黑麦粉制成,配以一个煮鸡蛋和一种波兰白香肠--白斯拉巴萨(white kielbasa)。 对于甜点,波兰人准备马祖雷克(mazurek)。除了是一种舞蹈和一种类型的音乐外,mazurek也是一种典型的复活节扁平蛋糕,是由一两张油酥松饼,再覆盖一张海绵蛋糕做成。一层果酱将这两层粘合在一起,再在面上盖一层糖霜。干果,蜜饯或坚果也常常用来装饰蛋糕。 另一种典型的波兰复活节甜点是babka,这是一种甜的酵母面包,类似于意大利的panettone面包,有时也用朗姆酒浸泡的葡萄干烘焙。它可以覆盖一层糖霜,或是什么都不加。 保加利亚传统的复活节甜面包--尽管罗马尼亚或塞尔维亚也有这种面包--被称为“cozonac”(cozonac)。Cozonac是由牛奶,酵母,黄油,糖和鸡蛋制成的,但不同地区的做法有差异,比如也可能加入土耳其软糖,葡萄干,坚果或柠檬皮在其中。杏仁刨花或卡斯特糖也常用来点缀在这种美味的甜面包的顶部。 在斯洛文尼亚,复活节庆祝活动从传统的斯洛文尼亚复活节早餐开始,早餐包括熟火腿,山葵(一种与火腿一起食用的略带辛辣的植物),面包和传统的彩色煮鸡蛋(称为pihri),蛋上装饰着鲜花,颜色自然。 至于甜点,斯洛文尼亚人通常吃传统的复活节蛋糕,波蒂卡,一种由坚果卷成的糕点作为甜点。最传统的版本是用核桃,但坚果仁糊或馅料也可以用山核桃,蜂蜜,干果,巧克力或罂粟籽。 饿了吗?不要犹豫,试试这些传统的复活节美食,享受来自欧洲文化的美味吧!我们特别感谢所有与我们合作的学员,告诉我们在每年的这个时候在他们的国家吃什么。 TermCoord祝大家复活节快乐! Crush Mag Online。2021年。复活节的十字餐包的意义[在线]网址:https://crushmag-online.com/eat-hot-cross-buns-easter/。[2021年3月30日查阅]。 culture.pl。2021年。波兰复活节文化的10道传统菜肴。[在线]网址:https://culture.pl/en/article/10-传统-波兰菜-复活节。[2021年3月30日查阅]。 艾米莉的克拉科夫指南。2021年。本周必吃的11种波兰复活节食物--艾米莉克拉科夫指南。[在线]网址:https://emilysguidetokrakow.com/2016/03/24/11-Polis-Easter-Foods-You-Must-Try-This-Week/。[2021年3月30日查阅]。 杰拉德·保罗。2021年。蛋糕的历史:从省亲日到复活节。[在线]网址:https://manyeats.com/history-of-simnel-cake/。[2021年3月30日查阅]。 爱尔兰美食。2021年。一个小历史的热十字面包-好食物爱尔兰。[在线]网址:https://goodfoodireland.ie/uncategorized/little-history-hot-cross-buns/。[2021年3月30日查阅]。 Iguaria!Receita e Culinária。2021年。葡萄牙的传统复活节美食。[在线]网址:https://www.iguaria.com/dicas/receitas-tradicionais-da-pascoa-de-portugal/。[2021年3月30日查阅]。 odlums。2021年。复活节蛋糕食谱Odlums。[在线]网址:https://www.odlums.ie/recipes/easter-simnel-cake/。[2021年3月30日查阅]。 哦-巴塞罗那。2021年。西班牙传统食物复活节蛋糕食-巴塞罗那。[在线]网址:http://www.oh-barcelona.com/en/blog/things-to-do-2/traditions/mona-pascua-3899。[2021年3月30日查阅]。 Potaje de garbanzos,bacalao y espinacas para Semana Santa,receta para quien tiene poco tiempo para cocinar gastronomía&cía。2021年。Potaje de garbanzos,bacalao y espinacas para Semana Santa,receta para quien tiene poco tiempo para cocinar gastronomía&cía。[在线]网址:https://gastronomiaycia.repubica.com/2019/04/12/potaje-de-garbanzos-bacalao-y-espinacas-para-semana-santa-receta-para-quien-tiene-poco-tiempo-para-cocinar/。[2021年3月30日查阅]。 Receitas e菜单。2021年。Receitas Tradicionais de Páscoa em葡萄牙-Receitas e Menus©。[在线]网址:https://www.receitasemenus.net/receitas-tradicionais-de-pascoa-em-portugal/。[2021年3月30日查阅]。 Recetas caseras con fotos paso a paso de El Invitado de invierno。2021年。西班牙法式吐司。[在线]网址:https://invitadoinvierno.com/torrijas-a-西班牙-easter-treat/。[2021年3月30日查阅]。 STO。2021年。复活节盛宴--典型的斯洛文尼亚假日美食/我在斯洛文尼亚的感觉。[在线]网址:https://www.slovenia.info/en/stories/the-taste-of-slovenian-easter。[2021年3月30日查阅]。 The Spruce Eats。2021年。来自世界各地的32种传统复活节食品。[在线]网址:https://www.thespruceeats.com/tastardial-easter-foods-from-around-the-world-4161077。[2021年3月30日查阅]。 作者:Irene Arto Escuredo,舒曼术语协调单位(DG TRAD)的术语培训生。她拥有西班牙萨拉曼卡大学笔译和口译学士学位,目前正在攻读机构翻译硕士学位。